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Social and political Values and Systems in India.

Sardar’s views on the issue of All India Services

Introduction – Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel (31 October 1875 – 15 December 1950), popularly known as Sardar Patel, was an Indian politician. He served as the first Deputy Prime Minister of India. His commitment to national integration in the newly independent country was total and uncompromising, earning him the sobriquet “Iron Man of India”. By August 15, 1947, all except Hyderabad, Junagarh, and Kashmir acceded to India. Patel thereafter carried the three-fold process of assimilation, centralization, and unification of states. The states were amalgamated to form a union and that union was merged with the Union of India.

Sardar Patel also known as “patron saint of India’s civil servants” – He is also remembered as the “patron saint of India’s civil servants” for having established the modern all-India services system.

The institution of All India Services – The institution of All India Services is one of the oldest and most wonderful institutions, the British Government has bequeathed to India.  It has a long historical background and is a product of centuries.  It has prospered, slowly but steadily, under three successive regimes—The East India Company, the Crown and the Indian Republic.

Golden Period for All India Services from 1858-1919 – Under Crown, from 1858-1919  was the golden period of All Indian Services.  During this period, the civil services were institutionalized.  From 1858 to 1919, the All India Services, specially the ICS, attracted the best talent of British Society, who graduated from Oxford or Cambridge.

The civil services were classified into Convenanted (Higher-Imperial and Provincial) and Uncovenanted (Subordinate), on the basis of the nature of work, appointing authority and pay-scales.  Imperial services, occupying the higher rungs of civil services and controlled by the Secretary of State, was further divided into All India Services and Central Services. 

On the eve of the Government of India Act, the following nine All India Services (Report of the Royal Commission on Superior Services in India, Government of India Press, 1924, p.4.). According to Report of the Indian Statutory Commission, Vol. I, the strength of personnel of each service was as follows: 

Sl. No.                     Name                      Popular Name                   Strength

1.       Indian Civil Service            ICS                         1,350

2.       Indian Police Service                    IPS                         732

3.       Indian Forest Service                   IFS                         417

4.       Indian Service of Engineers          ISE                         728

5.       Indian Medical Service (Civil)                                      420

6.       Indian Education Service                                  421

7.       Indian Civil Veterinary Service                                     53

8.       Indian Forest Engineering Service                               –

9.       Indian Agriculture Service                                 157

  The oldest and the most important among the All India Services was the ICS, which owes its Origin to Lord Macaulay Report submitted in 1854.  The last to be added to the list of All India Services was the Indian Agriculture Service in 1906.  All these services were grouped into Security All India Services (ICS and IP) and Other All India Services.  Appointment and control of these services rested with the Secretary of State as it was thought  necessary to hold British control over the country. 

During this period, the civil services not only became rigid in its class structure, but also became bureaucratic in methods and procedure of work.  Unlike the decentralized administration during the East India Company, the growth of rapid means of communication made centralization of administration possible.  The whole system, from top to bottom, became well-knit, highly centralized and behaved like an unbreakable steel frame with all the characteristics of a full-fledged Autocracy. (M.V. Pylee, Constitutional History of India, 1600-1950, Bombay, Asia, 1967, p.28) 

Centralization tightened the regulatory functions of the officials to supervise and control the subordinate officials and made the office procedure elaborate and cumbersome.   Sir William Hunter commented, “He governed most, who wrote most”.  Thus cam into being multiplication of reports, returns and correspondence and obsession for office work. 

Under Dyarchy (1919-35)Dyarchy, also spelled dyarchy, system of double government introduced by the Government of India Act (1919) for e provinces of British India. The principle of dyarchy was a division of the executive branch of each provincial government into authoritarian and popularly responsible sections.

As the movement for Indianisation gained momentum, Indian public and leaders became allergic to All India Services, not on the basis of their actual performance, but because they were controlled by the Secretary of State and were a living symbol of foreign rule. 

Intensification of national movement, growing demand for Indianization of higher civil services and introduction of Dyarchy (which promised progressive realization of responsible and self-government in India) in the post 1919 period brought about many changes in All India Services. 

Dampening effect on attraction to join all India services – Criticism of the individual members of the services by questions in the provincial and Central legislatures, the `ignominy’ of working under Indian Ministers in provinces, the non-cooperation movement of 1920-22, the insufficiency of salaries due to high price-rise in the wake of the World War I, etc., left a dampening effect on the attraction of All India Services as  a career service for British Youth.  All efforts to attract them fell flat and the number of British Officers began to decline.

In 1923, the Lee Commission recommended abolition of certain All India Services, particularly, those dealing with subjects that had been transferred to Indian hands, namely, Indian Education Service, Indian Agriculture Service, Indian Veterinary Service and the roads and Building branch of the Indian Service of Engineers.  It, however, recommended retention of Indian Civil Service, Indian Police Service, Indian Forest Service, Indian Medical Service and the Irrigation branch of Indian Service of Engineers. 

It also recommended increasing Indianisation of these services as also that any British Official belonging to the services of transferred subjects would be free to take voluntary retirement on a proportionate pension at any time.  Effect was given to these recommendations.  These changes affected the “The Espirit de Corps” of these services.

National leaders against the system of All India Services – In 1928, the Committee under the Chairmanship of Moti Lal Nehru, appointed the All Parties Conference, recommended discontinuance of all the All India Services and pressed for their provincialisation.  Similar were the views of the Committee appointed by the United Provinces Legislative Council, which asserted: “We hold that retention of these services (i.e. All India Services) in a system of full provincial autonomy would unnecessarily complicate matters”. (Report of the Committee Appointed by the United Provinces Legislative Council to cooperate with the Indian Statutory commission, Allahabad, Government Press, 1929, pp. 104-5). 

Shiva Rao said: “I do not think it would be satisfactory to work these services on an All India basis and at the same time ensure a proper relationship between the Services and the Ministry.” (B. Shiva Rao, Indian Round Table Conference: Proceedings of the Sub-Committee, Vol. VIII, Calcutta, Central Publication Branch, 1931, p. 54) 

Bheemarao Ambedkar also said: “No Province can be deemed to have provincial autonomy, if it has not the right to regulate the civil services that is going to work in its area”.  ( Bhim Rao Ambedkar, Indian Round Table Conference: Proceedings of the Sub-Committee, Vol. VIII, opp. Cit., p.55).

In 1933-34, in the Joint Committee on Indian Constitution Reforms, some leaders again urged the provincialisation of All India Services, but it did not accept it, because it regarded the need for a regular supply of officers, both Indian and British, of the highest quality as vital to the stability of the proposed Constitution itself.    “It is of the first importance that in the early days of `New Order’ and indeed until the course of events in the future can be more clearly foreseen, the new Constitution should not be exposed to risk and hazard by radical changes in the system which has for so many generations produced men of the calibre.(Report of the Joint Committee on Indian Constitution Reforms, Vol. I, Part I, 1934, para 286). 

The net effect of all this turmoil was that India Act of 1935 allowed the continuance of only three All India Services, namely, Indian Civil Service, Indian Police Service and Indian Medical Service (Civil).  Other services were not abolished abruptly or altogether.  Only fresh recruitment into these services was discontinued, thus enabling its painless extinction through the natural process of retirement, resignation and causalities of its members.

Even Pt. Nehru was against the Bureaucracy – After Independence, many national leaders wanted to abolish the bureaucracy after Independence. Despite the strong arguments put forward by Sardar Patel, it was not an easy job to gain provincial acceptance for the proposed All India Services. Some important national leaders like Nehru, G.B. Pant, etc., and a few states like Punjab, West Bengal, Jammu and Kashmir were very critical of it.  They preferred to have their own `Superior Services’.  However, All India Services were pushed down their reluctant throats by Vallabhbhai Patel. (The Hindu, October 25, 1946, p. 4.)

Even Pt Nehru against continuance of All India Services – Nehru is on record to have said: “But of one thing I am quite sure that no new order can e built up in India, so long as the spirit of ICS (Indian Civil Service) pervades our Administrative Public Service.  That spirit of authoritarianism is the ally of imperialism and it cannot coexist with freedom.  It will either succeed in crushing freedom or will be swept away by itself.  Only with one type of State, it is likely to fit in and that is the Fascist type.  Therefore, it seems quite essential that the ICS and similar services must disappear completely, much before we can start real work on a new order.” (Jawarlal Nehru, An Autobiography, London, the Bodley Head, 1953, p.443.)

“Provincial Premiers Conference” – Sardar Patel, the then Home Minister, however, held an opposite view.  He foresaw the dire necessity of “All India Services” in independent India.  Therefore, he convened a “Provincial Premiers Conference” in October, 1946 to take a decision on All India Services. 

While presiding over the Conference, he said: “My own view as I have told you, is that it is not only advisable, but essential, if you want to have an efficient service, to have a Central Administrative Service, in which, we fix the strength as the Provinces would require them and we draw a certain number of officers at the Centre, as we are doing at present.  This will give experience to the personnel at the Centre leading to efficiency and administrative experience of the district, which will give them an opportunity to contact with the people.  They will thus keep themselves in touch with the situation in the country and their practical experience will be most useful to them.  Besides their coming to the Centre will give them a different experience and wider outlook in a larger sphere.  A combination of these two experiences will make the service more efficient.  They will also serve as liaison between the Provinces and the Government and introduce certain amount of freshness and vigor in the administration, both at the Centre and in the Provinces.  Therefore, my advice is that we should have an All India Service.” (Sardar Patel, Proceedings of the Premiers’ Conference, October, 1946).

Patel’s advice to National leaders – It was Sardar, who advised them at Bombay in October 1947. he said, We have only a small number of Civil Servants left. Many people say that they are working in their old way. But those, who have experience of administration, know under what circumstances and how much they are working. Outsiders can not appreciate their work. Many of them, loyal workers and patriots are working with us night and day. All that we have been able to achieve, whether it be in the sphere of states or in Kashmir or another theatre, has been possible only because of their loyalty and whole-hearted support.” 

Patel’s warning – Again speaking in the Constituent Assembly, he warned: “There is no alternative to this administrative system…The Union will go, you will not have a united India, if you have not a good All India Service, which has the independence to speak out its mind, which has a sense of security that you will stand by your work..   If you do not adopt this course, then do not follow the present Constitution.  Substitute  something else…This Constitution is meant to be worked by a ring of service, which will keep the country intact.  There are many impediments in this constitution, which will hamper us.  But in spite of that, we have in our collective wisdom come to a decision that we shall have this model, which in the ring of a service will be such that will keep, the country intact.. these people are the instrument.  Remove them and I see nothing, but a picture of chaos all round the country.” (Constituent Assembly Debates, Vol. X, No.3, October 10, 1946.)

Sardar Patel’s step proved to be a step in the right direction – The vision of Sardar Patel in continuing this institution proved to be a step in the right direction even after 70 years of independence. Administrative Reform Commission’s Report of the Study Team on Centre-State Relationship, (Chairman: M.C. Setalvad, Government of India) had justified it in 1967.

The ARC also observed, ”Not only do the original considerations for which the All India Services was set up in the beginning hold good even today, but they apply with greater force today and make it necessary that a service structure like the IAS should continue for foreseeable future.” (ARC, Report on Personnel Administration, August 1967, p.61)

Report of the Study Team on Centre-State Relationship – The Setalvad team said, “The Indian scene has changed in many ways since then. But in this respect, the change that occurred over the years serves only to confirm all that Sardar Patel said with prophetic insight many years ago. It should be needless to affirm the continued validity of all the objectives underlying the All India Services and yet in a country, in which the Constitutional parts are possessed with preemptive desire to assert their separations, such an affirmation is solely needed. The value of a system considered necessary for the administrative unity of the country despite the ubiquity of congress Party rule and found indispensable for securing fair-play and competence in administration, despite the acute awareness of their need in the most potent political figures at a time, when their power was untrammeled and their right ran through the length and breadth of the land, can in the less favourable conditions of today be ignored only at the cost of perilous consequences. Continuity also demands a system which can maintain links in administrative behaviour throughout the country, while political changes visit different States and the Centre.” (ARC,Report of the Study Team on Centre-State Relationship, (Chairman: M.C. Setalvad), Government of India, 1967.)

B.B. Misra felt concerned at the abolition of other All India Services. He said, “It was the ICS and IP that remained unaffected and continued to act as unifying force. Most of the other All India Services were abolished. Considerations of national unity, the positive need of India’s all round development and the attainment of a minimum uniform standard in administration were allowed to go by default.”

Experiences of last 70 years of Independent India proves that Sardar Patel’s step was a step in the right direction, The vision of Sardar Patel in continuing this institution proved to be necessary for for good governance of the whole of the nation. a step in the right direction even after 70 years of independence.

Thoughts of Misra read with the analysis brought out under sub-title, “The Need for Additional All India Services” leads to the conclusion that the country has erred in not allowing continuation of All India Services in other areas of national interest. However, as the saying goes “It is better to be late than never”, it is time that a beginning is made to set up All India Services for Health, Water, Power, Education and Judiciary, immediately. This should not be a difficult task as the Rajya Sabha has already passed a resolution to that effect, at least for Health, Water and Power, and it can always pass a bill for other two remaining subjects, viz., education and Judiciary.” (B.B. Misra, Administrative History of India, 1834-1947: General Administration, London, Oxford University Press, 1970, p.143.)

On the eve of Independence, when the entire administration exhibited the signs of wear and tear, Sardar Patel had warned the nation, India is passing through the most critical and troubled days of her long and checkered history and strong, efficient, experienced broad minded administrators were badly required at that hour to save the nation from the impending crisis . Today, 70 years after the independence, position is the same, because of vote-bank policy, caste-based reservations and politics of vendetta. Nation again shows the signs of wear and tear. It is good to remember today Sardar Patel’s views on important issues and contributions to the nation and pay attention to what he had said 70 years ago.

May 30, 2020 Posted by | Bureaucracy/Civil Services | | Leave a comment

Oldest, Continuous and Uninterrupted living civilization of India

What is civilization – civilization is generally defined as a highly organized group of people with their own language and ways of living, an advanced state of human society containing highly developed forms of government, culture, industry, and common social norms. Civilization usually defines the parameters of the shared way of life in different spheres like having a shared and long-term sense of closeness in language, beliefs, and cultural artifacts such as art, literature, music, and religion etc. over a large population. Its culture enhances our quality of life and increases overall well-being for both individuals and communities.

In the past many civilizations developed in river valleys like Indus Valley in South Asia, Nile river Valley in northeastern Africa, and Huan-He-Valley of China. These civilizations had well-organized cities, powerful governments, complex religions (well-developed religious beliefs), specialized skills and jobs, social classes and methods of keeping records.

About civilization of India – Indian civilization is considered one of the oldest, continuous and uninterrupted living civilizations in the whole world.[i]  Considerations of self-discipline, hygiene and cleanliness on the basis of climatic conditions of the region have always been given importance. When the world was passing through the Dark Age, India was full of light. It has always been a cheerful land. The first few centuries are recognized as the golden period of Indian history. Inter-dependence in social life and self-reliance in personal life were the intrinsic features of Indian culture.

During this period, arts, commerce, crafts, philosophy and knowledge flourished magnificently.  Many travelers visiting India, from alien lands at different points of time, confirmed that India possessed huge wealth, knowledge, and quality of life.  Each person found a niche in the social system.  Its people reached a high level of intelligence having specialization in different areas.[ii] An average Indian, according to Dr. Albert Swheitzen,  Did not find life a vale of tears, from which to escape at all costs, rather he was willing to accept the world, as he finds it and, extract, what happiness he could, from it.[iii]

In the modern world, no society or nation can exist as a homogeneous cultural monolith.  India specially presents a unique picture of composite culture, which grew out of intermixing of people of different cultures, belonging to different identities.  As India passed through various phases in the past, each and every social group. As is known so far, civilization of India starts with a mysterious culture along the Indus River.

New evidence suggests the Indus Valley Civilization in India and Pakistan, famed for its well-planned cities and impressive crafts, predates Egypt and Mesopotamia. Such continuity and flexibility is difficult to be seen in any other part of the world.  When Christianity broke away from Judaism, it departed totally from the common cultural traditions.  Therefore, it is very difficult for the Western world to understand and appreciate Indian culture fully. However, the influence of Indus Valley civilization has come down to the present generation in an unbroken chain of succession, with some modifications and adaptations. 

Continuous attacks and migrations – Since time immemorial, invaders attacked from the North and led to migrations to South. Local rulers often competed for power. Many new social groups migrated from Europe, Middle East and other parts of Asia. And finally settled down in India. Geographic features tended to separate people into regional and local groups, each with its own way of life, customs and practices, different values, different languages, different scripts, different religious beliefs, different ways to worship, different dress style, different food habits.

Wonderful process of assimilation and fusion of different cultures – The history and culture of India are dynamic. Throughout its long history, local cultures have blended with those brought by invaders. Wonderful process of assimilation and fusion of different cultures has been a continuous process of the India civilization.

In other parts of the world, usually local authorities have tried to convert people of other communities, be it racial, immigrants, locals, tribal, or professionals into their own culture and faith, thus imposing on the newcomers their own value system. But India has shown its unique capability to absorb into its mainstream, all willing new coming social groups as whole into itself without annihilating their originality, internal order, customs or language. It has never tried to liquidate or absorb new groups artificially into its main stream. Rather it has given each one an opportunity to come under one umbrella, to preserve their own culture, style of living and traditions, as well as an atmosphere to flourish in their own way.

Absorptive nature of Indian civilization – Not only that, it has carefully nurtured and preserved the culture of each identity, coming into its fold, it has also absorbed the good points of other cultures also, which has enriched the composite culture of India. More than anywhere else in the world, it holds a multitude of thoughts, processes them and practices them. There has been co-existence of varied belief, pattern and thought due to inter-mixing and cultural mingling.

Adaptability of Indian civilization – Indian civilization has survived the vicissitudes of time, saved itself by erosion from within and assault from outside only because of the adaptability. It has taken different shades and meaning with changing times and places. Its character during Indus Valley Civilization was altogether different from what exists today. It is still in a transient phase. The multi-centricity of Indian society has given it a syncretic character, a pluralistic tradition and an absorptive nature of internalizing alien influences. That is why, it presents one of the oldest social institution and a continuous and uninterrupted living culture still existing in the whole world.[iv]


[i]  The other three being Egypt, Mesopotamia and Greece

[ii]           Basham, Ibid  p9.

[iii]           Dr. Albert Swhweitzen,  Indian Thought and its development.

[iv]           The other three being Egypt, Mesopotamia and Greece

May 28, 2020 Posted by | General | | Leave a comment

Animal instinct, mob-mentality and Humans’ march towards refinement

Introduction

Instinct – An instinct is something you don’t need to learn, it happens naturally, without you even thinking about it. Babies cry by instinct, and ducks follow their mother by instinct. Animals and humans learn a lot of things from other animals and humans.

Animal instinctAnimal instincts are present in all creatures including humans. Initially humans were not better than animals. Like animals, the automatic response to any contingency, all creatures try to protect themselves from harm. They usually do instinctively, whatever needs to be done without thinking or giving second thought to it.

Mob mentality – When a collection of people get together for any specific purpose, it is known as a group. The activities of people are more organized and its behaviour is more socialized in a group situation. But, collection of few people together becomes a mob when they show their protests in disorganized, disorderly and unruly manner; or when it intends to cause trouble to others; or shows their agitation irrationally; or turns violent.

The latest example of mob mentality is Shaheen Bagh protest. It was a sit-in peaceful protest, led by mostly by women. It began in response to the passage of the Citizenship (Amendment) Act (CAA) in both houses of Parliament on 11 December 2019 and the ensuing police intervention against students at Jamia Millia Islamia who were opposing the Amendment. For about 70 days, blocked road affected more than 100,000 vehicles per day, adding hours to some journeys. General public wanted to know whether a few persons were right to protest in such a way causing so much difficulty, in movement, to lacs of people. And also that the protests can be held in common areas indefinitely.

Animal instinct

Every human’s desire, impulse, and feelings are linked to a basic instinct. Like all animals, humans were also born psychologically with some basic natural instincts. Instinct means inherent aptitude, behaviour, impulse or a fixed action pattern that is unlearned. Two most basic natural instincts are self-preservation, and desire for survival and fear. Next to it is the instinct to be able to cope with vital environmental contingencies.

  • Instinct of survival – Instinct of self-preservation or to survive is the most basic, natural and the earliest instinct. When humans are born as babies, they are helpless. They depend on others for their survival, especially the Mother. The need to protect their babies is also there in all creatures – be it animals or humans. The instinct of survival has given rise to the institution of Family.
  • Fear – All creatures suffers from fear. The biggest fear in human lives is “Fear of Death”. So first of all, it is necessary to eliminate fear of death from the mind.

Next comes the number of fear of unknown, fear of failure, loud noises, phonophobia and a fear of falling, basophobia.

People don’t understand or accept this simple fact that ‘Fear’ creates deterrence in whatever one wants to do it in life. Death is a reality and is inevitable.

Be Fearless” – ‘Be Fearless’ that is what Srimat Bhagwat Gita preaches. (Verse 20, Chapter 2, Bhagwat) Fear, insecurity and misunderstanding about human needs give birth to some evils/animal instincts like Ego (Ahankaar), Cruelity (Amanatva), Injustice (Anyay), Lust (Kam/Vaasana), Anger (Krodha)), Greed (Lobha), Superiority-complex/Over-pride, Jealousy, Over-Attachment (Moh) and Selfishness (Swartha).

At present pre-dominance of animal instincts is one of the greatest challenge facing Humanity. To get control over such undesirable instincts and make life happy and civilized, these qualities are required – understanding, sensitivity, perseverance, contentment, good thoughts and good deeds.

Mob mentality

When does a group of people called MobCriminal Code Section 18.2-38 definesMob” in part as “any collection of people assembled for the purpose and with the intention of assault or battery on any individual. “Mob mentality” refers to the tendency/intentions of people to do over reactive things,  to act disorderly or to cause trouble or violence, while in a group of others with the same tendency, which they would not do otherwise.

Mob-mentalityAnimal instincts in human minds incite them for causing troubles for others. Mob-mentality comes into play when a group of people try to gain something, they desire, and which is not possible for them to get decently and single-handedly. Then they form a group of some people to put pressures on other people or State Authorities.

There are also some people, who find it exciting to join a mob without any purpose, as in mobs, they remain invisible. They feel that they won’t be held responsible for their unruly actions, when they are part of a mob. The influence of mob, as a pressure group. increases with crowd size. More the number of people in a mob, more stronger becomes its voice.

Best way to control agitating mob – The emotions of agitating mob remains at the peak. During that period, they are in extreme depression, anxiety or irritability. To control their irrational behaviour at that moment is extremely important. Afterwards time becomes the healer, because memory of the public is too short. And their anger does not stay for long.

At present, the best way for the government to satisfy the mob is to form an enquiry Commission to look into their problems and suggest solutions. This way, at the peak hour of anger, mob feels that their voice has been reached up to the concerned authorities. With time, their anger/irritation calms down and authorities get enough time to resolve the issue rationally.

Human’s march towards refinement The thought  to conquer/overcome undesirable animal instincts came into human mind came long long ago and it started the process of refinement of animal instinct. However, human-beings can never be able to overcome their animal instincts totally. Now and then, it is reflected in the day today their behaviour even now.

What refinement means? – Life is never without a need, never without a problem and never without a hurtful moment. When mind is balanced and strong, even a difficult situation becomes a  challenge and an opportunity to move forward. And when mind is weak, everything seems to be a problem.

It is wisdom a person which protects, guides and helps to attain a meaningful life. Happiness does not depend on what one has. It depends on how he feels toward what he is having. One can be happy with little and miserable with much.

Shaping of instincts – Shaping of instincts, natural, animal or refined depends on following variables :-

Human-mind – Nature has gifted to all creatures a mind/brain (primal brain; hindbrain and medulla) with intelligence. Humans-beings are more fortunate as human mind is a set of cognitive faculties, which includes natural instincts, consciousness, imagination, perception, thinking. These faculties make humans more intelligent than animals.

The power of Human mind is rooted in intelligence. Intelligence capacitates humans to think and experience emotions. It works like a computer. It has certain capacities like reason, morality, consciousness and a sense of responsibility. These qualities of mind have transformed humans from animals to intelligent persons and helped them to come over their fear, leave behind undesirable animal instincts and move towards a more civilized way of life.

Mind works at three levels. At Preconscious levels animal instincts dominates. Sub-conscious mind is the creator of ideas and desires/dreams. A awareness/ego operates mostly in Conscious mind. It is Conscious mind that leads individuals towards positive or negative thinking/attitude.

The development of mental faculties depends on purity of ‘Manasa (thinking), Vacha (speech) and Karmana (deeds).

Thinking  – Thinking is an activity of an existential value for humans’ mind. Thinking processes and creates thoughts. Thoughts create energy and energy transform it into reality. Thought encompasses an “aim-oriented flow of ideas and associations and leads to human actions and interactions.

Mind-setHuman body is a vehicle which is driven by mind or conscience of an individual throughout his/her life. Mindset means mental and emotional framework or thinking of a person. Actions and reactions of an individual depend on his/her mind-set. Not only a person’s life but also one’s all-round personality and performance is deeply affected by it. Mindset may be positive or negative.

Nature has given every human being a mind with power of ‘Viveka’ (intellect), five sense organs and free-will to assess what is good and be happy or misuse these by negative thinking and be miserable.

  • Positive mindset – Positive mindset/thinking generates positive energy/vibes, which leads positive life with focus on the bright side of life and brings positive results. It generates confidence, improves mood and reduces chances of developing stress-related conditions.

It usually focusses on the present. It encourages people to become a better person today than yesterday, to use more sophisticated language, to accept success or failures gracefully, to mix up with good-natured persons and to spend life in a meaningful way. Positive thoughts reinforces understanding and wisdom. Positive thinking leads to happiness, health, wealth prosperity and wisdom.

Positive thinking and controlling both the mind and five sense organs (eyes to see, ears to hear, nose to smell, skin to feel and tongue to taste) are necessary to follow the path of truth, purity, righteousness, compassion peace and love.

  • Negative mindset – One should try to eliminate negative thoughts. People with negative thinking imagine the worst possible scenario in everything. They do not have the confidence to face the challenges of life. The extent of negative feelings can go from anger, frustration, irritability, to even anxiety and depression, passing through many other feelings, none of them pleasant.

The gateways to negative thinking are (hell/unhappiness – Ego, Lust, Greed (misunderstanding about the needs) and Anger. Negative thinking disturbs the balance of mind and soul, and invariably leads to unhappiness, self-destruction. Humans with negative mindset develop a feelings of denial. They try their best to escape from uncomfortable situations or hardships in life. They think of excuses for not doing duties.

PerceptionPerception means the way in which something is regarded, understood, or interpreted. Framing of human mindset in either way depends on the perception of an individual.

Perception is relative. Perception creates one’s reality, one can look at life and see scarcity or abundance. It all depends on ones mindset. It is beyond the capacity of a human to perceive he whole truth.

Each person perceives the world and approaches life problems differently. “Your perception is yours and my perception is mine”. Perception occurs in five stages: selection, stimulation, organization, interpretation-evaluation, memory and recall.

Truth – It is a fact that Truth or Reality always remains one and the same. There are millions of people, each one having his/her own independent understanding. Based on different each persons’ perception, Truth/reality can never become more than one.

Meditation – Looking inwards/self-introspection helps in making a person mentally, emotionally and spiritually strong.

Khalil Gibran says, “Your living is determined not so much by what life brings to you as by the attitude you bring to life; not so much by what happens to you as by the way your mind looks at what happens.”

Attitude and Aptitude– Attitude and Aptitude play an important role in making the personality of a person and deciding his role in life.

  • Attitude is the collection of thoughts and beliefs that shapes one’s thought habits. And thought habits affect how one think, what one feel, and what one does. Because they are related to mindset, it also helps to understand attitude and beliefs.
  • Aptitudes are natural talents, special abilities for doing, or learning to do, certain kinds of things easily and quickly. They have little to do with knowledge or culture, or education, or even interests. They have to do with heredity. There is a close relation between Aptitude and intelligence. In general, aptitude helps humans to make/design their career and occupational decisions.

Attitudes according to ancient Vedic Hindu Philosophy Ancient Vedic Hindu philosophy thinks that individuals differ from one another in natural endowments, intelligence, aptitudes, attitudes, skills, personal needs and other innate characteristics. Accordingly it has assigned different tasks to different individuals.

  • About attitudes – According to Hindu Philosophy, thinking of human beings depends on three natural instincts/Gunas/ qualities, Sattva (purity), Rajas (activity) and Tamas (darkness, destruction).
    • Sattva embraces in itself purity, knowledge and harmony. It leads to goodness, joy, satisfaction, nobility and contentment, and frees human mind of fear, violence, wrath and malice.
    • Rajas represents passion, manipulation, action, and energy. Rajas fills human heart with a feeling of attachment, desire – a longing for creating one’s own comfort-zone, and self-satisfaction.
    • Tamas temperament leads to impurity, laziness, ignorance and darkness. It is the consequence of ignorance and it prevents all beings from seeing the reality. Increasing sattva is possible by reducing rajas and tamas, both in the mind and in your body.

Togetherness – The need to protect, preserve, pursue common interests and progress for the common good brought people together. There is a need for humans beings to build their relationship with others with love, laughter, sacrifice, patience, grace and forgiveness. They should avoid fights, anger, lust and greed. For inner peace, they must learn to ignore such things or thoughts that troubles them. There is no need to be jealous of others. Nobody can snatch from anyone anything, what he deserves. What is for you will remain with you. One should be wise enough to understand the difference between needs and desires and luxuries.

Start of the process of refinement, Step IInitially instinct of survival led humans to live together in small migratory  groups,  as wandering “nomadic herdsmen”. In the beginning, Humans were not better than animals.  Their life, as Hobbes describes was, “Nasty, brutish and short”.

Living together had made people feel more secured. Slowly, but steadily, instead of being wandering people, they learnt to live together in a settled life-style. Thus began the process of  refinement over the animal instincts and humans entered into an era of civilized life.

The purpose was to lead a more secure, decent and comfortable life-style. Togetherness made it easier for individuals to refine their animal instincts and to become more humane and civilized day by day.

Need and desire to live together has made individuals more humane. Slowly and steadily people had become so used to living together that it was considered that “if a human-being does not live with men or among men, then surely either he is god or beast.” (Famous Greek philosopher Aristotle)

Formation of groups, Step IIIt is the natural instinct of human mind to belong to one or the other group. On the basis of  their inherent qualities, needs, problems and difficulties, individuals get together and constitute their own independent group.

Differences in attitude and aptitude of different people has given rise to the formations of different social groups in every society. Individuals have become members of different groups for a multitude of reasons, mostly to satisfy their needs to provide companionship, survival and security, affiliation status, achievements or to gain power or control over state authorities as a pressure groups.

Setting up of the norms, Step III – The next step was setting up of the rules and norms. When people started to live together in different groups and got settled in different areas, they had created their own rules, values and systems in conformity with environment of that place.

Earlier their activities were confined within a small area or territory because of primitive communication and transport systems. But slowly, but steadily, with the advancement of technology in the areas of transportation and communication, their activities have spread all over the world. 

Influence of each other on instincts and behavior – While living with their respective groups, individuals’ instincts and behavior are deeply influenced by the thinking and behavior of other fellow-beings. The presence of near and dear ones around them, constantly moulds the mindset of humans toward either positive or negative thinking and behavior. People’s opinion and behavior also get influenced by the ideas of their leaders or role-models.

There are many ways, togetherness in a group can influence behavior of individuals as well as society. Usually interdependence, social interaction, perception as a group, commonality of purpose, and favoritism are the factors responsible for creating different groups.

Classification of society according to their aptitude – Vedic Hindu society has envisaged different activities for different groups of people based on natural instincts,  predominantly psychological characteristics, attitude and aptitude.

  • Persons having “Sat and “austerity, flair for learning and possessing intellectual/spiritual qualities to set standards for the whole society have been put in the category of Brahmins. They have been assigned the work of pursuing knowledge.
  • Befitting to their attitude and aptitude, men of action with `Rajas qualities, having courage, warrior skills, bravery,  leadership quality have been given the responsibility to defend the their people from internal and external aggression, maintain law and order in society and take care of the weaker sections of society.
  • People having business acumen have been given the task to carry on business.
  • People incapable to do the  above three tasks on their own and needing others guidance to perform a job are advised to get engaged in service sector under the guidance of other three categories.

According to Smritis”, it is not birth, but the qualities, attitude and aptitude and deeds, which fitted one into a particular group.[i] But, later on, as the population increased, upbringing, atmosphere and convenience tended to make these groups hereditary.

It is more convenient  and economical for the people also to practice their traditional occupations and acquire its basic qualifications from their elders in the family in a natural way. It has been seen that an illiterate Marwari  can invest his money in share market with more ease and confidence than a person having academic qualifications in this area.

Ideal state of Greek philosophers -The great ancient Greek  philosophers like Plato and Aristotle, had dreamt of a similar kind of classification for their Ideal State like Varna System for their Ideal state.

Principle of rule and subordinationGreek philosopher, Aristotle, has said that in Nature, there is a principle of rule and subordination, at large. It appears specially in the realm of animate creation.

By virtue of this principle, soul rules the body, those who possess the rational faculty of soul rules those, who possess only physical power and the faculty of understanding the directions given by another person’s reason. It is clearly natural and beneficial to the body that it should be ruled by the soul. So is the persons with strong mental power to guide the society.

Again it is natural and beneficial to the effective part of the body that it should be ruled by the mind and the rational part, whereas the equality of the two elements is always detrimental. Aristotle says that what holds good in man’s inner life, also hold good outside it.

Their ideal society was divided into following four sections: –

  • Philosopher king    –         For intellectual work for the society,
  • Army men              –         To protect the nation from outside invasions and maintain internal peace and order, and
  • Business community     – To do all kinds of transactions and
  • Slaves                           –   To do manual work

In their ideal state, all the people were supposed to belong to one group or the other, not on the basis of birth, but on the basis of their capabilities and aptitudes. Whatever Greek philosophers had dreamt, Indian society through Varna system has converted it into reality.

Nurture the nature – One needs to come to terms with the forces of nature. Conformity with nature insulates a person from shocks of life, pain and sufferings.

The teachings of Sanatan Dharma  of Hindu epics presents a scientific manual of self-management, self-reliance, and self-discipline, which is relevant even till today. It is based on natural instincts of human beings.  It guides people to assess and understand inherent nature of human beings, accept them and deal with them accordingly.

Conclusion

Take life as it comes – Life does not allow anybody to go back and fix what has been done wrong in the past. Life cannot be changed, undone or forgotten. What is done is done. Struggles are required in order to survive in life because in order to stand-up, one needs to know what failure/falling down means. Therefore, it is necessary to have a positive mindset and try to resist negative, bitter or depressive feelings.

Challenge the challenges – Take life as it comes. Be prepared mentally to face challenges in life and move on. Challenge the challenges coming on your way. Every problem has a solution. So don’t get disheartened. Never hesitate to take hard decisions/strong actions to overcome the hurdles. 


[i]            Varna 180, 21, 23.

May 28, 2020 Posted by | General | | Leave a comment

Hinduism and Caste as a system

“In modern understanding of ‘caste-system’, element of ‘caste’ has been highlighted and mis-interpreted;  and element of ‘system’ has been suppressed.”

Introduction – Don Martindale, an American sociologist, a prominent scholar and teacher wrote about Hinduism and caste system as “Caste was the system of social life, in which Hinduism was expressed. …… Hinduism was the ideological and emotional buttress of caste…. Caste and Hinduism succeeded in doing in India, what no state, no conqueror and no economy was able to do – the establishment of a single unified system of society throughout the whole of India (accommodating numerous semi-autonomous communities arising at many times and in many places), a system of society, which was able to comprise a greater range of local differences in a single system than any society has previously accomplished.”

“Through caste system, India has simultaneously accommodated “it to an almost endlessly varied system of semi-autonomous community and at the same time, it brings considerable unity, harmony and condition of peace.” And

It “succeeded in wielding an enormously varied plurality of semi-autonomous communities arising at many times and in many places and adopting themselves to many different conditions into a single system of society…”

Deep roots ‘caste system’ in India –“Caste was the system of social life, in which Hinduism was expressed.” (Don Martindale) In-spite of all the accelerated changes in the society due to modernization process and tough times, The roots of Hinduism and  ‘Varna/jati-Pratha’, now known as caste system, are so deep that it is virtually impossible to think of Hindustan without caste system.

Caste has its ethnic roots as denoted by Jati, and a ritualistic and symbolic significance in its Varna aspect. It is one of the dominant features still running through the entire social fabric of India. Rules of endogamy, ritual purity, interdependence, specialization and hierarchical order of social units were its important traits.

Caste-system is inseparably related to Hinduism by traditional customs, values and systems. At present, in India, about 79.8% of the population identify themselves as Hindus, (roughly about 966 million people) as per 2011 Census of India, who have faith in the Vedic principles of Varna, Dharma, and Karma. (14.2% of the population follow Islam and the remaining 6% adhere to other religions, such as Christianity, Sikhism, and Buddhism etc.).

Caste for a common-man in India – For a common man in India, caste appears to be a fundamental social institution – a natural, inevitable unit of society. Family, which is a natural unit of an extended family; Extended family of Kula; Kula of a tribe (Vish); and a tribe of a Jana of Jati (Caste). In a way, all are fundamental social institutions. Caste is nothing but a large extended family bonded by same language, customs, thinking and way of living and occupation. It is second only to the family in widening a person’s social radius and in getting importance in his/her private and occupational life.

Closer-relationship with caste-fellows – A person’s relation with members of his caste is closer than with those, belonging to other castes. Caste values, beliefs, prejudices, injunctions as well as distortions of reality are the indivisible part of a person’s psyche and conscience. Caste norms define an individual role in the society. Rules of endogamy, ritual purity, interdependence, specialization and hierarchical order of social units were its important traits. It makes one feel good and loved, when he lives up to the norms, and anxious and guilty, when he transgresses them. It still provides an individual with social security. To foreigners, Varna/caste system represent the ancient culture in its eternity.

Caste taking different shades and meaning with the changing times at different places –  Caste- system,  on which Hindu’s  social structure is based, has survived the vicissitudes of time, and saved itself by erosion from within and assault from outside. Its  adaptability, flexibility and absorptive nature has prolonged its life. absorptive nature has internalized alien influences.  It has taken different shades and meaning with the changing times and places. Once changed, it never returned to its original form. 

The system has evolved its structures and systems leisurely and kept on coping with the slow changes, time brought in. Its character during Indus Valley Civilization was altogether different from what exists today. It is still in a transient phase. It is different in context of village, locality, region or religion.

Caste system, a development of Thousands years –Its origin of Caste-system can’t be found in one single authoritative text like Bible or Koran, nor can it be attributed to one single founder like Jesus Christ or Mohammad Sahib. It has taken thousands of years to develop with the association of numerous social groups into it at different point of time.

The process was started with the arrival of Aryans hereditary kinship and tribal groups in India in waves, from different parts of the world. Their mixing up with the indigenous people (popularly known as Hindus) gave birth to caste system. Over thousands of years, the experiences and deep thinking of many learned sages and intellectuals belonging to different communities have contributed to evolve this system.

There is no denial to the fact that during the very long period of its evolution, many attacks were launched on Hindu ideologies from time to time. And also caste system has developed some evil practices. But so far, both have survived   the vicissitudes of time and saved itself from erosion from within or assault from outside. After each assault, Hinduism and its caste system re-emerged with greater force.

In the past, whenever rigid and discriminatory/evil practices of society in the name of caste system suffocated Indian society, there arose alternative ideologies or styles of life, which gave people breathing space. Rise of Buddhism in Ancient India, Sufi tradition of Islam and Bhakti movement of Hindus in medieval India (around 10th century), and reform movements of 19th and 20th centuries taught sympathetic attitude towards lesser human beings, brotherly love for each other and fellowship, love and respect all human beings irrespective of caste or creed and rejected practice of elaborate rituals and caste pretensions.

A mechanism to assimilate new groups – Caste system has provided a mechanism, through which numerous tribes and social groups, be it locals, immigrants, professionals, racial  or others. could be internalized and assimilated under the umbrella of Hinduism. Caste-system has created a plural society long long ago. The unique feature of the whole process was that the main society as a whole remained stable, even while offering a place to new groups within its main-stream. The assimilation of was done under Hindu society cordially through caste-system at different points of time, by assigning each new group a separate caste identity.

Preserved carefully the culture of new groups – The beauty of the caste system was that it has never tried to convert, liquidate or absorb new groups artificially into its main stream. Rather gives them opportunity to come under one umbrella, to preserve their own culture, style of living and traditions, and also provides an atmosphere to flourish in their own way. While other races and their religious systems (Christianity and Islam) believe to convert people belonging to other faiths into their own faith, and impose on them their own value system, Hinduism and its caste-system has absorbed other groups as whole into itself without annihilating their originality, internal order, customs or language.

Both Hinduism and its caste system have not become obsolete so far. Had it become obsolete, it would have given place to other systems. Both the institutions have always given the Indian society a distinguished identity and a solid social structure with a system of thought, a way of life, and sense of direction. The following facts proves the strength of caste-system even today:

  • Had it become obsolete, it would have given place to other religions and social structures.
  • Despite centuries of foreign rule, about 79.8% of the population identify themselves as Hindus, (roughly about 966 million people) as per 2011 Census of India, who have faith in the Vedic principles of Varna, Dharma, and Karma. 14.2% of the population follow Islam and the remaining 6% adhere to other religions like Christianity, Sikhism, and Buddhism etc.
  • Caste system has influenced almost other communities living in India and having faith in different religions.
  • Whenever in the past, new social groups desired, they were not prevented to join the mainstream. And also the existing internal social was not disturbed, only because of Hindu ideology and its cast system. All the incoming groups were given freedom to prosper according to their internal rhythm. Hindu society did not annihilate the faith, way of living, internal order, customs, culture or language of new groups.   

The caste system was working well in ancient times and still common-men do not find any complaint from any quarters against it. It is the vested interest of few sections of society, which raise their voice against the system. In recent past, they have tried to misinterpret it and portrayed it as an exploitative social system for retaining economic and social status of certain vested interests of upper castes. Indian caste system, which had been evolved in ancient period was an answer to the requirements of those times.

At present, Indian society is also in a state of great turmoil, trying to cope with the new challenges, which is a tough task. Socio-economic-political atmosphere is in a state of flux. Institution of family has lost its sheen. Traditional values are shattered. Political institutions are almost paralyzed. And economy of the nation is in a critical condition. There are many fast moving changes in systems, structure, strategy and management techniques. The main issues before the nation are -population explosion, poverty, resources, enough food, energy, breakdown of law and order situation, work-culture, ecology, climate changes, violence and terrorism etc.

Preference to present requirements over the opinions of past – In a changing world, nothing can be more disabling than its idolization of past; nothing can be more needed than the constant interpretation of past experiences and present circumstances. Present should be a constant challenge to the opinions of past. Throughout the world, from time immemorial, many systems, structures and principles have been evolved for the benefit and harmonious/peaceful living of all the members in a society. They have remained in vogue for some time, then faded and gave way to new structures, systems and concepts.

New values and systems  always challenge old way of thinking and behaving, no matter how useful they are! It is quite natural that when a new ideology or system is applied in real life situations, it is seen with suspicion. During the  period of its growth, many difficulties comes up. Sometimes undesirable elements/evil practices  develop in the system with changing atmosphere/circumstances. What is needed is try to do everything possible to maintain a fine balance between its theoretical aspect and its practicality.

May 25, 2020 Posted by | General, Social and political values and systems | Leave a comment

Bharat, Hind, Hindustan, Hinduism and Hindu Philosophy and Values

Traditional living had been an anchor, keeping our boat in safe harbor, Now that the anchor had gone and the boat is at the mercy of wild waves on a stormy ocean.

Introduction – The use terms Bharat, Hind, Hindu, Hindustan and Hinduism has historical significance.

India as Bharat –  Ancient India was referred to as Bharatvarsh before it came to be known as Hindustan. Derived from the Sanskrit term ‘Bharata’ that means ‘the cherished’, this name dates back to the ancient ‘Hindu Puranas’ (Hindu scriptures). According to it, the legendary Emperor Bharata was the first conqueror of the entire Indian subcontinent and the founder of the famous Bharata dynasty. After him, the Indian land is known as ‘Bharatavarsa,’

How ‘Bharatvarsh’ became Hindustan? –  Persians took inspiration from the name of river Sindhu to use the terms ‘Hindu’, ‘Hindustan; or ‘Hinduism’, ‘Hinduism’. The credit of the emergence of these terms go to Sind river. When Persians conquered the then Indian subcontinent and Greece in 5th century BCE, they termed land beyond Sind river as Hind or Hindustan. People living there were called Hindus from ‘Sindhu’. Their religion and culture were termed as Hinduism.

In Persian, the term Hind was originally used for Sind river, which runs mostly through present day Pakistan, Jammu & Kashmir in India and Western Tibet; the place beyond Sind River was called Hindustan ‘Stan’ in Persian means ‘land’ or ‘country,’ much like ‘sthana’ in Sanskrit means ‘place’); ‘Hindu’ is the Persian equivalent of Iranian ‘Sindhu’ that refers to people, the Indo-Aryans. These terms have been in use in Greek since Herodotus (4th century BCE)..

 Use of term ‘India’ for Bharat – By the 13th century, India became a popular alternative name for Hindustan. Since then, Latin term “India” has been widely in use for the Indian sub-continent. During the British Raj, instead of Bharat or Hindustan, where Indo-Aryan culture is strongly based there. The term ‘Hindus’ evolved to ‘Indos’ and made its first ever appearance in Old English in 9th century and reemerged in Modern English in the 17th century. After Independence, it is known as the “Republic of India”.

Hinduism – At present, Hinduism (its followers consist of 15% of the world population) comes within the range of one of the oldest and largest religion in the world after Christianity (with 33% of followers) and Islam (with 24.1% of followers).

It is believed that ‘Hinduism’, ‘a way of life’ and ’fusion of various beliefs’, mainly based on the principle ‘Dharma’. During  the 19th century, English writers added ‘ism’ to Hindu. Western thinkers have defined Hinduism as a religion/ a religious tradition or a set of religious beliefs, while translating the term ‘Dharma’ literally in English as ‘religion’. it is  not possible for the aliens to understand the true meaning, ethos and nuances Hinduism.  

Hinduism is not merely a religionHistory is a proof that Hinduism is not merely a religion like other religions, i.e.  Christianity or Islam. The term religion itself as a set of religious beliefs was shaped much later, can be said during Renaissance movement during 14th/15th centuries. And also,  Hinduism as a culture and civilization emerged into the scene centuries before other religions like Christianity, Islam, etc came into existence.

Hinduism a way of life – Hinduism was known at that time as a culture, “a way of life” and fusion of various beliefs of indigenous people living in Hindustan and migrating social groups willing to be merged in the mainstream of Hindustan.

No one can be called as the founder of Hinduism. The blending up or fusion of the language, values, systems  and culture of the indigenous people living in the region with Aryan’s gave rise to Hinduism and its Vedic Culture. It is the fusion of various beliefs.

Vedic culture originated during the period of Indus Valley Civilization (around 3300–1300 BCE) on the Indo-Gangetic Plains, (in northern parts of India) and matured by 2600–1900 BCE), and spread/flourished throughout India during 1500 BC and 500 BC.

Hinduism as a religion – According to the philologist Max Müller (the 19th century), the root of the English word religion is the Latin religio. The word means “to bind together.” For the first time the word was used in the 1500s to distinguish worldly things from spirituality  and  morality and set the domain of the church. Religion which means belief in or worship of God/Gods and a system of religious beliefs and practices.

Hinduism was used as a religion only after the colonization of Indus Valley civilization and influence of Europeans, especially the British. The term religion was used originally to mean reverence for God or the gods, careful pondering of divine things, piety. Before that Hinduism was popularly known as Sanatana Dharma.

The Upanishads (Vedic texts) were composed, containing the earliest emergence of some of the central religious concepts of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. Its roots are traced back to prehistoric times, over 5,000 years ago. Hinduism spread through parts of Southeastern Asia, China, Korea, and Japan. Hindus worship a single god with different forms.

The ”Rig Veda” , a scripture of Hinduism, dated to between 1500–1200 BCE said to be the oldest  complete religious holy book that has survived into the modern age. Laws of Manu, (date of publication uncertain but believed to be about 200 BC) was a hybrid moral-religious-law code and one of the first written law codes of Asia. According to Hindu tradition, the Manu Smruti records the words of Brahma. Manusmriti is also called the Mānava-Dharmaśāstra or Laws of Manu (human). In spite of its age, it has sustained paramountcy in the Hindu culture. It was also the code of conduct for inter-caste relationships in India.

Hindu Philosophy as one of the most scientific ideology – The principles of Hindu philosophy cannot be found in one single authoritative text, nor can it be attributed to one single author. Many intellectuals and reformers regard Hinduism, its values and systems, culture and philosophy, in its purest form, as one of the most scientific ideology ever developed anywhere in the world. It has taken thousands of years to take a shape of principle.

Hindu Philosophy contains an ocean of knowledge in a jarIn the beginning, the priestly schools had devised a most remarkable and effective system of transferring knowledge to succeeding generations in the form of hymns, restricting it only to those, possessing brilliant feats of memory and capability to keep extreme sanctity. Later on, it was put together in ‘Vedas’, ‘Smritis’ ‘Sutras’, and ‘Upanishads’. The Epics ‘Vedas’, ‘Smritis’ ‘Sutras’, ‘Upanishads’, Ramayana, Mahabharat and Bhagvat Gita are not only the religious/spiritual books, but also a perfect guide to living a better life in this world as well as better life after death. It is the gold mine of knowledge. It is a magnificent example of scientific division and orderly arrangement of rules, in a few words, in different branches of human knowledge, covering almost all the aspects of life, be it spiritual, phonetics, arts, literature, medicine, polity, or metrics. Its rituals are techniques for leading a harmonious life.They speak of everything- on staying healthy, social evils, improving concentration and tenets of behavior, which are relevant even today.

These Epics “contain an ocean of knowledge in a jar.”[i] Only after raising oneself from ignorance, one can understand the greatness of Vedic literature. A knowledgeable person, like a jeweler, can spot out gems from this ocean of knowledge; pick them up and leave behind the undesired obsolete elements developed into it with passage of time. Its values and rituals give to the people, a purpose to live for and ideals to be achieved.

Vedic Hindu philosophy and other value systems of Hinduism are the gold mine of knowledge, which have always inspired not only Indians, but foreigners as well.  Intellectuals from various countries have translated it in their own languages and reinterpreted it for a rational mind. It still commands the respect and attention of an average Indian. Today, when Indians are getting away from their roots, it can make their feet firmly grounded on earth and  instill right values in them.

When the rest of the world was passing through the Dark Age, India was full of light. The first few centuries are recognized as the golden period of Indian history. During this period, arts, commerce, crafts, philosophy and knowledge flourished magnificently. Its people reached a high level of intelligence having specialization in different areas. It was rich in literary, philosophical and religious fields. Values and principles of Hindu philosophy have always remained an inspiring icon of peace, harmony, compassion and other human values for the whole universe. Caste system has worked as one of the instruments to maintain the continuity of Indian culture and civilization without interruption.

Principles of Hinduism and Hindu philosophy General principles of Hinduism and Hindu philosophy give guidelines to common-men as a purpose to live happily, lead a worthwhile quality of life. It also suggests make the journey of soul better after the death. It speaks on everything – be it in the sphere of spirituality or material well-being – on staying healthy, overcome social evils, improve concentration and mannerism, which are relevant even today. It is important to know about the basic tenets of Hinduism, the religion followed by the majority community living in India since ages. However rituals, customs, traditions of a society should not be mixed up with the basic principles of Hindu philosophy.

Basic tenets of Hinduism and its philosophy. Following are the basic principles/culture and religion of Hindu Philosophy and its importance for the people living in India, where followers of all the religions reside:

  • Atma (Self) and Parmatma (Creator of Universe) – In Hinduism, according to Principle of non-duality, the ‘Creator’/’Bramhan’/’Parmatma’ (God) and the ‘Creation’/ ‘Atma’ (every living thing in this world) are the integral part of the same God, and therefore inter-linked. The purpose of human life, according to Indian thought, is to unite with the ultimate Reality, the Divine/Brahman.
    • Brahman is a key concept found in the Vedas, and it is extensively discussed in the early Upnishads. The Vedas conceptualize Brahman as the “world soul” or “cosmic soul”/Cosmic Principle. In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as Sat-cit-anand (truth-consciousness-bliss) and as the unchanging, permanent, highest reality. Brahman/Parmatma is the creator and destroyer of the entire Universe. He is Supreme, the Ultimate Reality in the universe. He is all-pervasive, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. HE is present in all the objects, including human body.
    • Atman Atman is an integral part of the supreme, ultimate reality Brahman, It is the eternal essence of the universe and the ultimate divine reality.The predominant teaching in the Upanishads Atman means ‘eternal self’. The atman refers to the real self beyond ego or false self. It is often referred to as ‘spirit’ or ‘soul’ and indicates the true self or essence which underlies our existence. Atman is the spiritual identity of soul within the body of each and every human being and inside every other living being, be it an animal or a tree.
  • Every human has two components – the body and the soul. Soul is indestructible. Body, which is  (made up of eight elements earth, water, air, sky, fire, mind, intellect and ego) does not retain its original form or shape even during one life time. Similarly, body Death merely changes the form of the body.

. Philosophy of Bhagvat Gita – Mahabharata and Ramayana are the two great epics of India. The philosophy Gita interesting and useful. Following are lessons of Gita give an exercise to human minds in the same manner as yogic exercises to bodies:

  • Detach from illusions and attach to Divine. Give priority to divinity. See divinity all around.
  • Have enough knowledge/intellect/devotion to see the truth as it is.
  • Attachment is the cause of all distress.
  • Detachment is the way to progress and prosperity.
  • The attainment of True Knowledge is the ultimate aim of all such deeds.
  • Fight for right cause in life is the ultimate solution to all problems.
  • Live a simple life-style that matches your vision.
  • Always remain steady.
  • Renounce the ego and attain salvation leading to unending peace and happiness.
  • Every act should be done in moderation.
  • True Knowledge is far Superior to the knowledge of the Sacred Scripts.
  • Stress is on Detachment and Equanimity. Happiness and unhappiness should be considered alike. For achieving detachment or renunciation, Knowledge and intellect play an important role.
  • Principle of Reincarnation – Hinduism believes in the Immortality of the soul, and the ‘Principle of Reincarnation’ which means that the soul is an eternal entity. After death it is reborn again and again depending on the deeds of previous birth till it attains salvation. After several births and deaths of body, one can reach a state of immortality. But once it attains Salvation, it is not born again.
  • The ultimate purpose of human life is immortality/Salvation/Moksha, get rid of the pangs of rebirth and death. In order to set itself free from the cycle of multiple rebirths and deaths, one should do follow the path of ‘Dharma’. Good deeds of human can help to reach up to the stage of salvation. One needs to practice continuously detachment (restrain one’s senses from drifting towards the objects of pleasure) and balanced mindset.
  • Avatars to save humanity from evil – According to Western philosophers Hinduism believes in Avatars. According to Hindu mythology (based on some truth and some imagination), the Supreme power visits the earth from time to time in some form of Avatars to save humanity from evil. So far these Avtars have visited the earth – Matsyavatar (fish), then to Kurma (tortoise)); Varaha (wild boar); Narsimha (half animal half mam); Vamana (dwarf); Parushrama with axe (tool); Rama, the Maryadapurusha; Krishna the playful and serious avatar; and ninth, Budha the enlightened one. The world is awaiting for the 10th avatar in the form of Kalki, a genetically supreme bionic man. (‘Know your religion through its philosophy’ by Prakash Shesh, the Speaking tree, TOI, January 14, 2016, p. 20)
  • Victory of Virtue over Evil – Hinduism believes that goodness always wins over evil. Stories about each Avataar inspires and encourages the masses to follow the path of  virtue and keep themselves away from evils. Different rituals, traditions, and customs give to the people, a purpose to live for and ideals to be achieved. They inspire the people to follow the path of righteousness. Rituals, customs, traditions of a society should not be followed blindly. It is necessary to understand the purpose behind traditions or rituals. These should not be mixed up with negative thinking, practices or superstitions. Such as festivals of Dussehra, Diwali or Janmashtmi etc. are celebrated to give the people the message that mark that ‘Good always wins over Evil’.
  • Concept of Right And Wrong, according to Indian philosophy – Truth lies somewhere in between various differing opinions. To find out what is really right or wrong, one has to keep a balanced approach. In fact, right and wrong are relative terms, which depend on the total configuration of following four variables of an action. A rational opinion about it can be formed only by keeping these four variables in mind:
    1. Desha (region) – The culture of a place, in which a person is born,
    2. Kala (time) -The period of historical time, in which a person is born,
    3. Shrama (Effort)-The efforts required of him at different stages of Life,
    4. Guna (Quality)-Aptitude and innate psycho-biological traits.
  • Positive and negative Mindset of human beings (Gunas) – Hindu philosophy believes that the whole world of activities is a result of complex intermixing of three basic qualities of human nature Satva, Rajas and Tamas. When born, a person, is like a clean slate – pure, formless, undifferentiated Consciousness. What s(he) writes on it, depends on the relative strengths of three Gunas –Tamas, Rajat and Sattva. The categorization in these three groups is usually depend on degree of attachment-detachment, austerity, Purity/cleanliness of body, speech and mind, charity and positive or negative thinking.

‘Satva’ is associated with peace purity, knowledge with clarity in  thinking positive attitude and consistency in actions. (1) Fearlessness, (2) Cleanliness of mind and body, (3) Devotion towards God, (4) Acquisition of true knowledge, (5) Suppression of the senses, (6) Study of scriptures, (7) Recitation of God’s name, (8) Taking pain in following one’s own code of conduct, (9) Simplicity of mind, inner self and senses, (10)Non-violence in all its forms, (11) Speaking Truth in a pleasant manner, (12) Absence of anger, (13) Non attachment, (14) Peace of mind, (15) Not speaking ill of others, (16) Kindness towards all, (17) Forgiveness, (18) Patience, (19) Lack of ego and (20) Feeling ashamed while doing something against Laws or Traditions.

‘Rajas’ is associated with passion/lure for comfort, often makes an individual self-centered. Individuals with Tamas or negative thinking are the victims of ignorance, sloth carelessness. It usually suppresses good qualities and leads towards `Adharma (immoral behavior), Alasya (laziness) and Agyan (ignorance). Tamas/negative mindset manifests (1) the show off, (2) pride, (3) ego, (4) anger, (5) harsh words, (6) lack of knowledge and (7) falsehood.

Persons with negative mindset usually responsible for different kinds of social evils, exploitation and miseries of the people. In order to keep oneself away from negative mindset, one should first ‘Think’ before taking any step, be regular, then ‘evaluate’, and make amendments/improvements. Try to be Creative, confident, and punctual, while setting goals.

Inter-play of three qualities – Inter-play of the three qualities determine the tendencies, potentialities, limitations, traits and character of different individuals and give them direction for action. The material world through senses attracts human mind towards a mirage/illusion or attachment. Many a times, attachment leads to impurities. Freedom of mind from attachment/illusion is consciousness. In order to become civilized, one has to keep in control and observance of cleanliness – of body, speech and mind. The purpose of human life should be to overcome Tamas, refine Rajat be regular, and inculcate Sattva.

PRINCIPLES OF ‘DHARMA’, ‘KARMA’ AND ‘VARNA’–The foundation pillars of the Indian social structure are the principles of Varna, Dharma and Karma. Together, these principles have given  Hinduism a distinct identity. Doctrine of Varna gives the Indian Society a stable, sustainable social structure. It has served to give Indian society coherence, stability and continuity. It has distributed and organized the performance of various functions systematically according to the attitude and aptitude.

It has organized inter-relationship of various sections of society. It has made it possible for the people to lead a quality of life and ensured the continuity despite numerous foreign invasions, migrations and assimilation of various groups. The doctrine of Dharma defines the duties and vocations for different sections of society. It has assigned specific roles to different sections of society on the basis of attitude and aptitude, ensures social harmony and prevents rivalries and jealousiesDoctrine of Karma makes the inequalities, prevalent in the society, tolerable to an average Indian.

Focus on assimilation and tolerance for others and interdependence – Hindu philosophy values interdependence, acceptance of others as they are, and tolerance.

(a) It accepts that there are different paths leading to God and be humane;

(b)It gives complete liberty to worship any god or goddess of their choice, as well as use their own methods of worship;

(c)It does not impose its own codes of conduct on other faiths;

(d) It is liberal enough to see atheism as a legitimate pursuit.

Path of assimilation – Hinduism has adopted the path of Assimilation. It gives complete liberty to all incoming social groups to worship god or goddess of their choice, as well as use their own methods of worship. It does not impose its own codes of conduct on other faiths. It is liberal enough to see atheism as a legitimate pursuit. It does not believe in conversion or imposing its beliefs, practices and customs on others. Hindu religion has neither repulsed any trend vehemently, nor allowed others to sweep its own established culture off the roots.

Tolerance Tolerance is most evident in the field of religion.  Hindu faith in an all pervading omnipresent god, multiplicity of god and goddesses as representing some portion of the infinite aspect of the Supreme Being, inspires it to accommodate people of all faiths.  Hinduism concedes validity to all the religions and does not lay down strictures against any faith or reject any religion or its god as false.  That is why, all the twelve major religions of the world are present and flourishing in India without much hindrance. It accepts that there are different paths leading to God and be humane.

Tolerance is not confined to religion alone.  It has always been seen everywhere in the Indian way of life and is the integral part of Indian ethos and is. Hinduism firmly believes in the principles, ‘Live and let live’, ‘Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam’ (The whole world is one family). Truth, Ahimsa, peace and non-aggression are the hallmark of Indian culture. At present, more than anywhere else in the world, India holds a multitude of thoughts, processes them and practices them. There has been co-existence of varied belief, pattern and thought due to inter-mixing and cultural mingling.

Many times in the past, Indians had accepted oppression and exploitation without much protest, while such situations, elsewhere in the world, would have led to bloody revolutions. Even today, the people are tolerating the criminalization of politics, corruption, scams and scandals and inefficiency of the administration without much protest.  Administration is one such area, where tolerance is harmful, as it not only hinders the development, but also pushes the nation backwards.

Principles of Varna, Dharma and Karma, the foundation pillars of the Hinduism – Principles of Dharma Varna and Karma are the core values of Indian ethos. These principles together has These principles have, so far, contributed to the growth of the Indian society as a whole, in a systematic way. It has prepared an atmosphere for co-existence of different sections of the society – be it ruler or ruled, rich or poor; and held together different castes and communities having diverse languages and practices for generations – thus making unity in diversity a reality.

. Doctrine of Varna – Principle of Varna provided to Indian Society, a stable, sustainable social structure; It has ensured the continuity despite numerous foreign invasions, migrations and assimilation of various groups. It has served to give Indian society coherence, stability and continuity. It has defined, distributed and organized performance of various functions systematically. It has ensured social harmony and prevented rivalries and jealousies; organized systematically the performance of various functions; provided  quality of life to its people.; defined the duties and vocations for different sections of society on the basis of their attitude and aptitude roles; organized inter-relationship of various sections of society.

Assignment of Work – According to Hindu philosophy, individuals differ from each other in natural endowments, intelligence, aptitudes, attitudes, skills, personal needs and other innate characteristics.  Their physical strength, mental capacity and moral aspirations, like and dislikes, inclination and expectations are not the same.

Focus on attitude, aptitude and deeds – According to Smritis, it is not birth, but the qualities and deeds, which fitted one into a particular group. Such as Sat or “austerity is required for pursuing knowledge, “Rajas is the quality needed for actions of courage, bravery, power and protection of the weak. But, later on, upbringing, atmosphere and convenience tended to make these groups hereditary. At present, employment/occupation/profession of people depend on number of formal degrees/ diplomas/certificates.

According to Varna system, society itself assigns specific tasks to do to different sections of society according to its natural endowment/inclinations, qualities and aptitudes/psychological characteristics.

Work is worship – Hindu philosophy taught people that Work is Worship. All types of work were worth pursuing and respectable. no work is superior/high or humble/inferior/derogatory. Any work done in its true spirit could never be derogatory or a waste.

A work should not be valued so much for its external reward, as for the intrinsic satisfaction towards realization of ‘Swadharma’. Doing one’s Swadharma gives a feeling that s(he) is also an integral part of the society and not an outsider. By doing one’s Swadharma a person earns a rightful place in the society.

. Principle of Dharma – Scholars have repeatedly commented that the word ‘Dharma’ is not translatable in English. Words like law righteousness, ethics, morality all together are not enough to give justice to the meaning of Dharma. The principle of Dharma embraced within itself religion, law, duty, righteousness, morality and conformity with truth”. Along with its being a religious idea, Dharma was also a principle and a vision of an organic society, in which all participating members were independent, yet their roles complimentary.

Any kind of work worth pursuing Principle of Dharma tells the people that any kind of work is worth pursuing and respectable, if done in its sincerely. No work is derogatory or a waste. Everyone has come with some  specific role to play in  life, as per one’s own Karmas and destiny. While performing one’s duty/action, one should develop detachment – indicating, one should not bother for fruits of Action.

It assures people that proper performance of one’s work, with honesty and sincerity assures worldly honour and spiritual happiness. The work of a priest, warrior, manual worker or yogi, all are equally important for the society and are, therefore, right, respectable and worth pursuing. Proper assignment and performance leads the whole society to live quality of life. The idea of white-collared jobs, blue-collared jobs and menial/derogatory jobs is the contribution of Western society, especially after industrial the Industrial Revolution. It has attracted the attention of common men to a great extend in modern times.

Common Dharma for all – There was a common Dharma, which was applicable to all. All the people in the society were governed by Dharma at all times, be it a ruler or ruled, parent or child, teacher or student or man or woman. It provides universal, practical and eternal guidelines to be followed in personal life, family life, community life, social life, professional life and national life. It inspires people to follow the path of righteousness and do their duties earnestly.

Separate Dharma appropriate for each Varna – Dharma also specifies duties, privileges and restrictions of each role separately and their relationship with each other. It prescribes a separate Dharma appropriate to each Varna, each class and each stage of human life. Separate Dharma for different communities is based on inherent qualities, aptitude and potentialities of its members. The social, economic or spiritual Dharma of Brahmin is not similar to that of a Shudra, or the Dharma of a student not similar to that of an old man.

Moulding life according to Dharma not an easy task – Moulding life according to Dharma is not an easy task. It requires a strong will-power and character. Individuals with weak faculties finds it difficult to observe Dharma. Dharma along with Karma is the means to reach up to the desired goals of ones life, the ultimate aim being salvation from the cycle of birth and death.

Karma with Detachment – Doctrine of Karma makes the inequalities, prevalent in the society, tolerable to an average Indian. Karma is perhaps the centre piece of Bhagwat Gita. The Philosophy of Gita is simple. It guides people ‘Rely on one’s own Laws and Traditions. Do one’s own duties/deeds without hesitation and with complete devotion towards God, and achieve what is generally achieved by such deeds.

Every act should be done in moderation. For doing so control over mind is necessary. Control over mind is needed for purification of Soul. One should try to practice doing everything in proper manner and in moderation.

Detachment is the doorway to self-realization and to have control over restless mind. If a person wants peace of mind, he should not try to feel elated with the feeling that he is the doer of the deeds. Dedicate the results of all your deeds to God. Then one can keep the mind free from attachment towards the results of his deeds. In that manner you should reach beyond the scope of the three qualities – (saintly, worldly lethargic).

Knowledge necessary for giving Karma its due meaning – Knowledge is supposed to be necessary for giving Karma its due meaning, direction and value. Ignorance is considered to be leading to futile efforts destroying direction. On the basis of thorough research and experience, Rishis and Munies of ancient India set norms for the ignorant masses from time to time. Knowledge was supposed to be necessary for giving Karma its due meaning, direction and value. Ignorance was considered to be leading to futile efforts destroying direction. Therefore, discipline was inculcated among ignorant masses, and a sense of direction was given to them through infinite variety of rituals, prayers, practices, customs and meditation.

Quest for knowledge – Vedas teach that creation and quest for knowledge is a constant process, without any beginning or an end. It is a never ending process (‘Neti’, ‘Neti’). In olden days, Sages, Rishis and Munies (Intellectuals of that time) believed that even Vedas are not the end for quest for knowledge or prescribes any final absolutes.

As per Gita, senses are superior to the body, mind is superior to the senses and knowledge or intellect is superior to the mind. Gita tells: knowledge is better than abhyas (practice), meditation is better than mi Dayanand knowledge and renunciation of the fruits of action is still better than meditation as peace immediately follows such renunciation.

Gita prescribes for ‘action’/’deed’ combined with intellect. There are choices before human beings – take action with developed mind/intellect or action with weak mind, bridled with desire, based on emotion, impulse, hatred, greed and selfishness. It quite often leads to agitation/aggression and discontent. Intellect needs to be developed to make mind rational. A mind governed by intellect makes a person calm and content.

Sanatan Dharma ( a compact life package) Sanatan Dharma is a set of eternal (beyond the time) values. It is the Universal Truth which sustains the very core of Universe and its beings. It nurtures the basic instincts of human beings over nature, after a deep study of natural instincts, inherent attributes and natural behavioural pattern and takes care of the basic physical, mental and spiritual needs of the human beings at different stages of life. 

After a deep study of natural instincts, inherent attributes and natural behavioral pattern of human beings, Indian philosophy has developed a Sanatan Dharma. It nurtures basic human instincts over nature. In keeping view the felt needs at different stages of life, it takes care of their basic physical, mental and spiritual well-being of the people.

Sanatan Dharma facilitates to achieve Sachchidanand (Bliss, consciousness and delight), to follow one’s Dharma and Karma without difficulty and to lead an ideal way of life. The scheme is in conformity with time and forces of nature, which affects the circumstances of the people. It is applicable to all, irrespective of the Varna, caste, creed or place for all time to come. Even today it is as relevant as it was earlier.

According to it, there are four stages in human life. For living life fully and fruitfully and aging gracefully, everyone one has to pass through four stages of life and perform different duties in different stages of life –

. Stage I – Brahmcharya Ashram – During this stage, Society is the giver and individual recipient. Tasks of an individual are Learning and acquisition of knowledge of all Aspects and ramification of Dharma. For mental and physical discipline, learn to get control over senses, mind and intellect. Yoga and knowledge play an important role. Lead a simple life. A period of strict discipline.

. Stage II. Grahatha-ashram – This is the most energetic period of life. It provides a real ground to utilize one’s intellectual and physical capabilities. To indulge one-self in economic activities in order to fulfill one’s dreams and ambitions, to keep direct contact with the society, and to take proper care of the dependents, which included elders, children, members of extended family and strangers in need of help.

During this stage, Society is the recipient, individual makes contribution. It presents opportunities to practice and cultivate all the three Dharmas – Artha/finance (to fulfill his duties), Kama/desrires ( and financial and material success for full enjoyment of life) and Moh/attachment. An Individual has direct contact with  society and makes direct contribution to  society consistent with the dictates of his own knowledge and conscience.

This is the time, when a person gets opportunity to lead an active married life. His tasks are practice of Dharma and protection to his dependents with love and care.Proper management of other three Ashrams depends on Grihasthashram as their needs (like provision of food and financial help) are directly or indirectly supported by  householders.

Of all the Ashrams, Grihasthashram is given a high place of honour as it offers opportunities for practice and cultivation of all Guna and establishes direct contact with the society.

. Stage III, Vanaprastha Ashram (Adulthood withdrawal)- It is a Neutral phase of life. During this period, a person should prepare himself for loosening earthly bonds and to achieve happiness through good deeds and social service. Material success is not aim. Task assigned to this group is teaching Dharma and extended care.

. Stage IV, Sanyas (senior citizens) – It is a Phase of resignation and renunciation. By now, a person is completely free from any obligation. Senior citizens are advised to achieve complete detachment and lead a simple life.

In ancient period, when human life was not so complicated and men were closer to nature, people could follow the Sanatan Dharma without any hassle.  But as the atmosphere became more complex and moral values eroded, it became difficult to observe it truthfully in real life. At present, very old people, in their greed for power, position and wealth, remain active in politics and don’t plan to retire till the end.

Vedic Literature – Vedic literature is a magnificent example of scientific division and orderly arrangement of rules, in a few words, in different branches of human knowledge, covering almost all the aspects of life, be it phonetics, arts, literature, medicine, polity, metrics, law, philosophy, astrology or astronomy. 

The priestly schools had devised a most remarkable and effective system of transferring knowledge to succeeding generations in the form of hymns, restricting it only to those, possessing brilliant feats of memory and capability to keep extreme sanctity.  Only after raising oneself from ignorance, a person could be able to understand the greatness of the Indian value system.

Like a jeweler, one could spot out gems from among worthless pebbles.  A knowledgeable person could pick up knowledge and leave the undesired obsolete elements developed in it with passage of time.  This gold mine of knowledge inspired not only Indians, but foreigners as well.  Intellectuals from various countries have translated it in their own languages and reinterpreted it for a rational mind.

Self-discipline, self-reliance and self-restraint – Vedic literature has given importance to the considerations of self-discipline, morality, and knowledge. All social groups i.e. Varnas/Castes are supposed to lead a self-restraint and self-disciplined life in all respect, be it in the matter of daily routine, occupation or inter group relationship. In the past, ranking of different social groups was done on some principles. Self-discipline, hygiene, cleanliness, morality, knowledge, spirituality of different social groups and usefulness of their work to the society as a whole were the considerations, which determined the social, economic or political status of a group in society vis-a vis others. Higher a varna/caste, purer it was considered, and greater were the self-restrictions on its behaviour through rituals.

Truth, Ahimsa, peace and non-aggression – Truth, Ahimsa, peace and non-aggression are the hall-mark of Hindu philosophy. They have always been the part of Indian ethos. Indians  endure without much protest injustice and unfairness until they are pushed right to the wall. It has prevented its people to exercise coercion, force, violence or aggression. In the past, intolerance of people elsewhere in the world had compelled the people to work under the threat of a whip or led to bloody revolutions as had happened in ancient Greece, Rome or other European countries. However, tolerance in India had kept on adapting itself to changing times and had prevented people from taking up the path of violence. It is continuously internalizing the changes and has kept on adapting itself to changing times. India has entered the modern era without any cultural break.

Winding up – Ever since an average Indian has lost faith in these principles, (s)he has also lost faith not only in her/his fellow beings, but also in herself/himself. Almost all persons are heading towards indiscipline, violence and chase of sheer materialism/consumerism based on ruthless competition. The knowledge of the foundation pillars/core values and principles of Hinduism will lead to more tolerance and acceptance by all the communities settled in India.

While living for centuries under aliens domination, Indian people have faced many changes. Then modernization and globalization have shattered its old ways of thinking, lifestyle, values and systems of Indian people. systems and values. Now India  is desperate to pick up the lost threads of its true culture, beliefs. Once again, it is trying to create an atmosphere, where different identities can live together in harmony and can proudly say ‘we belong to a nation known as India, Hindustan, and Bharat’. 


[i]            Basham, Wonder That Was India, p51-52.

          [ii]           Basham, Wonder That Was India, p51-52.

         

May 23, 2020 Posted by | General, Social and political values and systems | Leave a comment

   

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