Latasinha's Weblog

Social and political Values and Systems in India.

Hinduism and Caste System in India

 “Traditional living had been an anchor, keeping our boat in safe harbor, Now that the anchor had gone and the boat is at the mercy of wild waves on a stormy ocean.

“In modern understanding of Hinduism and ‘caste-system’, element of “Hindu” caste’ has been highlighted and mis-interpreted;  and element of ‘system’ has been suppressed.”

 

Introduction, Spot out gems – Hinduism is not a religion, but a way of life. It not only means religious festivals, worship statues of deities. Hindu philosophy of life and its Vedic literature is “An ocean of knowledge in a jar”. It guides humans to lead a decent way of living life under all circumstances and face the challenges of life coolly without losing balance of mind. Its philosophy, sacred texts, values and systems guide people how to live a quality of life and make it enjoyable. A knowledgeable person can spot gems from this ocean of knowledge; pick them up and leave like worthless pebbles the undesired, obsolete elements developed into the system with passage of time. 

Difficult for Western World to understand the nuances of Hinduism – Hinduism does not believe to follow rituals blindly or show off religiosity, as Westerners think. The substance of the knowledge, learning and research work of Rishis-Munis (sages and saints) was put in the form of rituals for the benefit of common-men. Certain practices/guidelines were shaped in the form of rituals by intellectuals and prescribed for the benefit of common-men. These rituals and guidelines inspired people to lead a harmonious and healthy life. And as far as knowledge is concerned, Hinduism believes in the concept of ‘Neti, Neti’, meaning that pursuit of knowledge is a never ending process. 

Deep roots of Hinduism and its caste system in India – Throughout the world, from time immemorial, many systems, structures and principles have been evolved for the benefit and harmonious/peaceful living of all the members in a society. They have remained in vogue for some time, then faded and gave way to new structures, systems and concepts. However it does not apply to Hinduism and Caste system.

Has Hinduism or caste system, an obsolete phenomenon in India. No, it is not! –Had it become obsolete, it would have given place to other systems. At present, in India, about 79.8% of the population identify themselves as Hindus, (roughly about 966 million people) as per 2011 Census of India, who have faith in the Vedic principles of Varna, Dharma, and Karma. (14.2% of the population follow Islam and the remaining 6% adhere to other religions, such as Christianity, Sikhism, and Buddhism etc.). Both Hinduism and its caste system can not be ignored, as an adolescent phenomenon, as its hold on the public mind is still very strong. 

So much and so that, Muslims and Christians, Sikhs or Buddhist, living in India could not remain immune to it for long, though their respective religions believe in egalitarian society.  Muslims, with all their equalitarian faith, formed caste groups. Christians in Kerala were earlier divided into sections, which later on took a caste character.  Sikhs could not overcome caste feelings.  Even Roman Catholics in South India, converted by missionaries in the 16th century, brought their caste feelings with them.[i] The hold of the caste system, on the public mind, is also confirmed by the fact that whenever any system does not work well, public itself removes or replaces it.  The caste system still offers people legitimate goals, strengthens the feeling of inter dependence, mutual respect and improves the quality of life. The following facts proves the strength of caste-system even today:

  • Had it become obsolete, it would have given place to other religions and social structures.
  • Despite centuries of foreign rule, about 79.8% of the population identify themselves as Hindus, (roughly about 966 million people) as per 2011 Census of India, who have faith in the Vedic principles of Varna, Dharma, and Karma. 14.2% of the population follow Islam and the remaining 6% adhere to other religions like Christianity, Sikhism, and Buddhism etc.
  • Caste system has influenced almost other communities living in India and having faith in different religions.
  • In the past, whenever any new social groups desired to join the mainstream, neither they were not prevented, nor the existing internal social was disturbed. All the incoming groups were given enough freedom to prosper according to their internal rhythm. Hindu society never annihilated the faith, way of living, internal order, customs, culture or language of new groups.

World entered into the era of modernity and technological advancement – With process of modernization and technological advancements, happened during late 20th and beginning of 21st centuries, knowledge has progressed at such a fast speed, that human beings are unable to compete/cope with it. Even a genius like Newton, (an English mathematician, physicist, astronomer, theologian, and author, described in his own day as a “natural philosopher”, widely recognized as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution)  had said, “I am like a child, who is picking pebbles at sea-shore while the great ocean of knowledge lies before me.”

 During modern period, drastic changes have happened in the social, political and economic spheres due to industrialization, modernization, technological advancements, Information technology and mass-media sector. Era of materialism and consumerism started and progressed. Human’s way of thinking, behaving, style of living and pattern of relationships have been transformed almost completely geographically, socially and politically. New ideas, concepts, systems, strategies and management techniques have emerged.

In addition to it, concepts of Welfare state and Development Administration have increased the aspiration and expectations of the people considerably, especially after the World Wat II. Spread of education, public awareness and exposure the developments happened elsewhere in world added fuel into fire.

All these changes have put additional pressure on the traditional values and systems. Many challenges have come on the way. Sincere efforts are being done now by governments of different nations, organisations, researchers, scientists and ordinary people collectively make a difference to find out solutions to those challenges.

Balance between old values and new systems – New concepts, values and systems  always challenge old way of thinking and behaving, no matter how useful they are! Also it has been observed that people watch growth of any new ideology or system with suspicion. It is a difficult task to convince people about its utility. Sometimes undesirable elements/evil practices  develop into the system due to changing atmosphere/circumstances. What is needed, is to maintain a fine balance between old values and the new ones, while applying concepts in real life situations.

Preference to present over pastOld values, old ways of thinking, and ideologies should not be discarded. It will be proper first to analyse them rationally, then reject. In changing atmosphere, nothing can be more disabling than its idolization of past; nothing can be more needed than the constant interpretation of past experiences and present circumstances. Present should be a constant challenge to the opinions of past.

Part I

Hind, Hindustan, Hinduism, Hindu Philosophy

Ancient India was referred to as Bharatvarsh before it came to be known as Hindustan. Derived from the Sanskrit term ‘Bharata’ that means ‘the cherished’, this name dates back to the ancient ‘Hindu Puranas’ (Hindu scriptures). According to it, the legendary Emperor Bharata was the first conqueror of the entire Indian subcontinent and the founder of the famous Bharata dynasty. After him, the Indian land is known as ‘Bharatavarsa,’

Significance of the terms ;Hind’, ‘Hindu’ and ‘Hindustan’ and Caste – The start of the terms Hind, Hindu, Hindustan and Hinduism and Caste has historical significance.  

Hind/Hindustan – Persians conquered the then Indian subcontinent and Greece in 5th century BCE. They called the land beyond Sind river( which runs mostly through present day Pakistan, Jammu & Kashmir in India and Western Tibet) as Hind or Hindustan (‘Stan’ in Persian means ‘land’ or ‘country,’ much like ‘sthana’ in Sanskrit means ‘place’).

HinduPeople living there were called Hindus (that refers to people, the Indo-Aryans). Their religion and culture were termed as Hinduism. These terms have been in use in Greek since Herodotus (4th century BCE)..

From Hindustan to IndiaBy the 13th century, India became a popular alternative name for Hindustan. During British Raj, Latin term “India” has been widely in use. The Indian sub-continent, where Indo-Aryan culture is strongly based, has been usually called India instead of Bharat or Hindustan, there. The term ‘Hindus’ evolved to ‘Indos’ and made its first ever appearance in Old English in 9th century and re-emerged in Modern English in the 17th century. After Independence, it is known as the “Republic of India”.

Hinduism as a culture/civilization, philosophy and religion – Hinduism presents one of the oldest,  continuous and uninterrupted living culture and civilization in the world. Sometimes, during 19th century, English writers had added ‘ism’ to Hindu. it is  not possible for the aliens to understand the true meaning, ethos and nuances Hinduism. Hinduism is not a religion like Christianity or Islam. ‘Hinduism’ is  ‘a way of life’ and ’fusion of various beliefs’, mainly based on the principle ‘Dharma’.   

Believers in Hindu Mythology think that Hinduism as a culture has always existed and is beyond the limits of time. As a culture and civilization of the indigenous people living beyond Sindhu River, it has always existed. Later on, a large number of social groups migrated from elsewhere and willingly merged into the mainstream of Hindustan.

Others believe that Hinduism as a Vedic culture originated during the period of Indus Valley Civilization (around 3300–1300 BCE) on the Indo-Gangetic Plains, (in northern parts of India) and matured by 2600–1900 BCE), and spread/flourished throughout India during 1500 BC and 500 BC. The blending up of migrating social groups, their language, values, systems  and culture with that of the indigenous people living in the region gave rise to Vedic Culture of Hinduism.

Hinduism as a religionHinduism is not merely a religion like other religions, i.e.  Christianity or Islam. The term ‘Religion’ (as a set of religious beliefs) was shaped much later, during Renaissance movement of 14th/15th centuries, Before the colonization of India, the religion of Hindustanis was as Sanatana Dharma. As far as Hinduism is concerned, it is a magnificent example of scientific division and orderly arrangement of rules, in a few words, in different branches of human knowledge, covering almost all the aspects of life, be it phonetics, arts, literature, medicine, polity, metrics, law, philosophy, astrology or astronomy. It speaks of everything- on staying healthy, social evils, improving concentration and tenets of behavior, which are relevant even today.

According to the philologist Max Müller (the 19th century), the root of the English word religion is the Latin religio. The word means “to bind together.” For the first time the word was used in the 1500s to distinguish worldly things from spirituality  and  morality and set the domain of the church. Since then, Religion means belief in or worship of God/Gods and a system of religious beliefs and practices. It originally meant reverence for God or the gods, careful pondering of divine things, piety.

Western thinkers have defined Hinduism as a religion/religious tradition/set of religious beliefs. They have  literally translated the Sanskrit word ‘Dharma’ into English as ‘religion’. Hinduism was used as a religion only after the colonization of Indus Valley civilization and under the influence of Europeans, especially the British.

At present, Hinduism (15%) is said to be one of the oldest and largest religion in the world after Christianity (Christianity 33%) and Islam (24.1%). The Upanishads (Vedic texts) were composed, containing the earliest emergence of some of the central religious concepts of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. Its roots are traced back to prehistoric times, over 5,000 years ago. Hinduism spread through parts of Southeastern Asia, China, Korea, and Japan. Hindus worship a single god with different forms.

Part II

Hinduism as a Philosophy

Many intellectuals and reformers regard Hinduism, its values and systems, culture and philosophy, in its purest form, as one of the most scientific ideology ever developed anywhere in the world. It has taken thousands of years to take a shape of principle. It cannot be found in one single authoritative text, nor can it be attributed to one single author.

‘Vedas’, ‘Smritis’ ‘Sutras’, ‘Upanishads’, Ramayana and Bhagvat Gita are not merely the scriptures/religious/spiritual books, but also a perfect guide to lead a happy life. These Epics “contain an ocean of knowledge in a jar.”[i] The ”Rig Veda” , dated to between 1500–1200 BCE is said to be the oldest  complete religious holy book that has survived into the modern age. Laws of Manu, (date of publication uncertain but believed to be about 200 BC) was a hybrid moral-religious-law code and one of the first written law codes of Asia. According to Hindu tradition, the Manu Smruti records the words of Brahma. Manusmriti is also called the Mānava-Dharmaśāstra or Laws of Manu (human). In spite of its age, it has sustained paramountcy in the Hindu culture. It was also the code of conduct for inter-caste relationships in India.

Mode of transferring sacred knowledge to succeeding generations – In the beginning, the priestly schools had devised a most remarkable and effective system of transferring knowledge to succeeding generations in the form of hymns, restricting it only to those, possessing brilliant feats of memory and capability to keep extreme sanctity. Later on, it was put together in ‘Vedas’, ‘Smritis’ ‘Sutras’, and ‘Upanishads’.

Hindu philosophy covers almost all aspects of human life – The Vedic literature is a magnificent example of scientific division and orderly arrangement of rules, in a few words, in different branches of human knowledge be it phonetics, arts, literature, medicine, polity, metrics, law, philosophy, astrology or astronomy.

Mahabharata and Ramayana are the two great epics of India, which covers almost all the aspects of human life. It commands the respect and attention of an average Indian. It has guided the people to live a quality of life here in this world, but and also to improve the status of one’s re-births after death.  Its rituals are techniques for leading a harmonious life. It speaks about everything, be it in the sphere of spirituality or material well-being – on staying healthy, overcome social evils, improve concentration and mannerism, which are relevant even today.

Teachings of Bhagvat Gita Following are lessons of Gita give an exercise to human minds in the same manner as yogic exercises to bodies:

  • Detach from illusions and attach to Divine. Give priority to divinity. See divinity all around.
  • Have enough knowledge/intellect/devotion to see the truth as it is.
  • Attachment is the cause of all distress.
  • Detachment is the way to progress and prosperity.
  • The attainment of True Knowledge is the ultimate aim of all such deeds.
  • Fight for right cause in life is the ultimate solution to all problems.
  • Live a simple life-style that matches your vision.
  • Always remain steady.
  • Renounce the ego and attain salvation leading to unending peace and happiness.
  • Every act should be done in moderation.
  • True Knowledge is far Superior to the knowledge of the Sacred Scripts.
  • Stress is on Detachment and Equanimity. Happiness and unhappiness should be considered alike. For achieving detachment or renunciation, Knowledge and intellect play an important role.

This gold mine of knowledge inspired not only Indians, but foreigners as well.  Intellectuals from various countries have translated it in their own languages and reinterpreted it for a rational mind. reinterpreted it for a rational mind. Today, when Indians are getting away from their roots, it can make their feet firmly grounded on earth and  instill right values in them

Only after raising oneself from ignorance, a person could be able to understand the greatness of the Indian value system. Like a jeweler, one could spot out gems from among worthless pebbles.  A knowledgeable person could pick up knowledge and leave the undesired obsolete elements developed in it with passage of time.

When in the past, the rest of the world was passing through the Dark Age, India was full of light. The first few centuries are recognized as the golden period of Indian history. During this period, arts, commerce, crafts, philosophy and knowledge flourished magnificently. Its people reached a high level of intelligence having specialization in different areas. It was rich in literary, philosophical and religious fields.

An inspiration for all – Values and principles of Hindu philosophy have always remained an inspiring icon of peace, harmony, compassion and other human values for the whole universe. Caste system has worked as one of the instruments to maintain the continuity of Indian culture and civilization without interruption.

Part III

Hinduism and caste system as a culture

India presents one of the oldest, continuous and uninterrupted living civilization in the whole world known as Hinduism. (Other well advanced civilizations of ancient world were of Egypt, Greece and Mesopotamia). One of the prominent features of Indian civilization is its ‘Caste-system’. Caste system is a unique way of stratifying the society. It has been conceptualized, originated and practiced exclusively in India. It has given a distinguished identity to Indian society.

General principles of Hinduism guide people to live here on the earth happily and lead a quality of life, and then after death, enable soul to make its onward journey worthwhile. It tells common-men about the purpose of human life. The rituals, customs, traditions of a society should not be mixed up with the basic principles of Hindu . Following are some of the basic principles of Hindu Philosophy:-

Atma (Self) and Parmatma (Creator of Universe) – In Hinduism, according to Principle of non-duality, the Creator’/’Bramhan’/’Parmatma’ (God) and the ‘Creation’/ ‘Atma’ (every living thing in this world). Atma and Parmatma are the integral part of the same God, and therefore inter-linked. The ultimate purpose of human life, according to Indian thought, is to unite with the ultimate Reality, the Divine/Brahman. 

Brahman’ is a key concept found in the Vedas, and it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads. The Vedas conceptualize Brahman as the Cosmic Principle.[10] In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as Sat-cit-ānanda (truth-consciousness-bliss) and as the unchanging, permanent, highest reality.

Parmatma/Brahman is the creator and destroyer of the entire Universe. He is Supreme, the Ultimate Reality in the universe. He is all-pervasive, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. HE is present in all the objects, including human body.

Atman The predominant teaching in the Upanishads Atman means ‘eternal self’. The atman refers to the real self beyond ego or false self. It is often referred to as ‘spirit’ or ‘soul’ and indicates the true self or essence which underlies our existence. Atman is the spiritual identity of soul within the body of each and every human being and inside every other living being, be it an animal or a tree. It is an integral part of the supreme, ultimate reality Brahman, which is the “world soul” or “cosmic soul.” It is the eternal essence of the universe and the ultimate divine reality.

Human body – Every human has two components – the body and the soul. Soul is indestructible. Body, which is  (made up of eight elements earth, water, air, sky, fire, mind, intellect and ego) does not retain its original form or shape even during one life time. Similarly, body Death merely changes the form of the body. 

Principle of Reincarnation – Hinduism believes in the Immortality of the soul, and the ‘Principle of Reincarnation’ which means that the soul is a deathlessness entity. After death it is reborn again and again depending on the deeds of previous birth till it attains salvation. After several births and deaths of body, one can reach a state of immortality. But once it attains Salvation, it is not born again.

Ultimate purpose of human life, Moksha/SalvationThe ultimate purpose of human life is Immortality/Salvation/Moksha, get rid of the pangs of rebirth and death. In order to set itself free from the cycle of multiple rebirths and deaths, one should do follow the path of ‘Dharma’. Good deeds of human can help to reach up to the stage of salvation. One needs to practice continuously detachment (restrain one’s senses from drifting towards the objects of pleasure) and balanced mindset.

Avatars to save humanity from evil – According to Western philosophers Hinduism believes in Avatars. According to Hindu mythology (based on some truth and some imagination), the Supreme power visits the earth from time to time in some form of Avatars to save humanity from evil. So far these Avatars have visited the earth – Matsyavatar (fish), then to Kurma (tortoise)); Varaha (wild boar); Narsimha (half animal half mam); Vamana (dwarf); Parushrama with axe (tool); Rama, the Maryadapurusha; Krishna the playful and serious avatar; and ninth, Budha the enlightened one. The world is awaiting for the 10th avatar in the form of Kalki, a genetically supreme bionic man. (‘Know your religion through its philosophy’ by Prakash Shesh, the Speaking tree, TOI, January 14, 2016, p. 20)

Righteousness always wins over Evil – Stories about each Avatars inspire and encourage masses to follow the path of virtue and keep themselves away from evils. Different rituals, traditions, and customs give to the people, a purpose to live for and ideals to be achieved. 

Rituals, customs, traditions of any society should not be interpreted blindly either by insiders or outsiders without understanding the basic principles/ purpose behind them and should not be mixed up with negative thinking, derailed practices or superstitions. its basic principles. Festivals like Dussehra, Janmashtami etc. are celebrated to give the people the message that mark that ‘Virtue always wins over Evil’.

Concept of Right And Wrong, according to Indian philosophy – Right and wrong are relative terms. The idea of sin and virtue, good and evil are creations of the mind. They reflect the needs of society and therefore bear not much value. Truth lies somewhere in between various differing opinions. Yesterday’s Right/truth/Justice may be today’s wrong/falsehood/injustice, and today’s right tomorrow’s wrong. Truth is like a chameleon in reverse. It always assumes colors other than those of its environment. People chase truth/justice without embracing it. To understand it one needs a balanced approach. A rational opinion about it can be formed only by keeping these four variables in mind:

  • Desha (region) – The culture of a place, in which a person is born,
  • Kala (time) -The period of historical time, in which a person
  • is born,
  • Shrama (Effort)-The efforts required of him at different stages of Life,
  • Guna (Quality)-Aptitude and innate psycho-biological traits.

Positive and negative Mindset of human beings (Gunas) – Hindu philosophy believes that the whole world of activities is a result of complex intermixing of three basic qualities of human nature Satva, Rajas and Tamas. When born, a person, is like a clean slate – pure, formless, undifferentiated Consciousness. What s(he) writes on it, depends on the relative strengths of three Gunas –Tamas, Rajat and Sattva. The categorization in these three groups is usually depend on degree of attachment-detachment, austerity, Purity/cleanliness of body, speech and mind, charity and positive or negative thinking.

‘Satva’ Guna (Positive mindset) – ‘Satva’ is associated with peace purity, knowledge with clarity in  thinking positive attitude and consistency in actions. (1) Fearlessness, (2) Cleanliness of mind and body, (3) Devotion towards God, (4) Acquisition of true knowledge, (5) Suppression of the senses, (6) Study of scriptures, (7) Recitation of God’s name, (8) Taking pain in following one’s own code of conduct, (9) Simplicity of mind, inner self and senses, (10)Non-violence in all its forms, (11) Speaking Truth in a pleasant manner, (12) Absence of anger, (13) Non attachment, (14) Peace of mind, (15) Not speaking ill of others, (16) Kindness towards all, (17) Forgiveness, (18) Patience, (19) Lack of ego and (20) Feeling ashamed while doing something against Laws or Traditions.

‘Rajas Guna’ (Having power to control people and events)) – Rajas represents itself by power, passion, action, energy and motion. Rajas Guna drives people towards passion, power, ambition, and love for comfortable living. It often makes an individual self-centred. It does not care much about any particular value. It can contextually be either good or bad. 

‘Tamas’ (Negative mindset) – Individuals with Tamas or negative thinking are the victims of ignorance, sloth carelessness. It usually suppresses good qualities and leads towards `Adharma (immoral behavior), Alasya (laziness) and Agyan (ignorance). Tamas/negative mindset manifests (1) the show off, (2) pride, (3) ego, (4) anger, (5) harsh words, (6) lack of knowledge and (7) falsehood. Persons with negative mindset usually responsible for different kinds of social evils, exploitation and miseries of the people.

Lesson – In order to keep oneself away from negative mindset, one should first ‘Think’ before taking any step, then ‘evaluate’, and try to be Creative and confident, while setting goals.

Inter-play of the three qualities determine personality of a person – Inter-play of these three qualities determine the personality, Inter-play of the three qualities determine the tendencies, potentialities, limitations, traits and character of different individuals and give them direction for action. The material world through senses attracts human mind towards a mirage/illusion or attachment. Many a times, attachment leads to impurities. Freedom of mind from attachment/illusion is consciousness. In order to become civilized, one has to keep in control and observance of cleanliness – of body, speech and mind. The purpose of human life should be to overcome Tamas, refine Rajat and inculcate Sattva.

Principles of Varna, Dharma and Karma, The Foundation pillar of Hinduism

Principles of Dharma Varna and Karma are the core values of Indian ethos. Together these principles have given  a sustainable social structure and a distinct identity to Hindu society.

Doctrine of Varna – Hinduism has provided legitimacy to the Varna/Jati Pratha and prepared a political and social framework for Hindu society. Doctrine of Varna has provided continuity and stability despite numerous foreign invasions, migrations and assimilation of various groups.

Numerous castes and sub-castes emerged within each Varna. ‘Varnas’ were never more or less than four and always remained the same. Castes had its ethnic roots as denoted by Jati and a ritualistic and symbolic significance in its Varna aspect. Each caste found its place under a Varna on the basis of their nature of work, its being ritually clean or unclean and amount of self-discipline, they exercised.

According to Hindu philosophy, individuals differ from each other in natural endowments, intelligence, aptitudes, attitudes, skills, personal needs and other innate characteristics.  Their physical strength, mental capacity and moral aspirations, like and dislikes, inclination and expectations are not the same. Different activities should be assigned to different sections of society according to its natural endowment/inclinations, qualities and aptitudes/psychological characteristics.

Hinduism believes that individuals differ from each other in natural endowments, intelligence, aptitudes, attitudes, skills, personal needs and other innate characteristics.  Their physical strength, mental capacity and moral aspirations, like and dislikes, inclination and expectations are not the same. Different activities should be assigned to different sections of society according to its natural endowment/inclinations, qualities and aptitudes/psychological characteristics.

Stratification of Hindu society based on Gunas (Qualifications) – Division of labour in Hindu society is was based on the Gunas. Hindu society is classified into four social groups ie Varnas according to their attitude and aptitude – Brahmins (Learners) possessing qualities of “Sat and “austerity, busy in pursuing knowledge; Khhatrias (Warriors and men of action ), Having quality of Rajas, Vaishyas (Business men)and Shudras (workers under the guidance of above three groups).

Initially, according to Smritis it was not birth, but the qualities and deeds, which fitted one into a particular group. But, later on, upbringing, atmosphere and convenience tended to make these groups hereditary. At present, employment/occupation/profession of people depend on number of formal degrees/ diplomas/certificates.

Numerous castes and sub-castes emerged within each Varna – As population increased and more and more indigenous and foreign social groups were merged into the Hindu-fold, Vedic Varna system gave rise to caste system.. ‘Varnas’ were never more or less than four and always remained the same. Castes had its ethnic roots as denoted by Jati and a ritualistic and symbolic significance in its Varna aspect. Each caste found its place under a Varna on the basis of their nature of work, its being ritually clean or unclean and amount of self-discipline, they exercised.

Castes had its ethnic roots as denoted by Jati and a ritualistic and symbolic significance in its Varna aspect. Each caste found its place under a Varna on the basis of their nature of work, its being ritually clean or unclean and amount of self-discipline, they exercised.

This way, Principle of Varna defines, distributes and organizes performance of various functions systematically within society.

Principle of Dharma Scholars have repeatedly commented that the word ‘Dharma’ is not translatable in English. Words like law righteousness, ethics, morality all together are not enough to give justice to the meaning of Dharma. The principle of Dharma embraced within itself religion, law, duty, righteousness, morality and conformity with truth”. Along with its being a religious idea, Dharma was also a principle and a vision of an organic society, in which all participating members were independent, yet their roles complimentary.

Dharma has defined the roles, duties and vocations of different sections of society on the basis of their attitude and aptitude roles. it has organized systematically the performance of various functions, provided  a quality of life to its people and has organized inter-relationship of various sections of society.

Common Dharma for all – There is a common Dharma, which is applicable to all. These are the norms and values of good conduct, which lead individuals to the path of righteousness. All the people in the society are governed by Dharma at all times, be it a ruler or ruled, parent or child, teacher or student or man or woman. Principle of Dharma has given universal, practical and eternal guidelines to be followed in personal life, family life, community life, social life, professional life and national life.

Specific and separate Dharma for different sections of society – Principle of Dharma specifies role, duties, privileges and restrictions of each role separately. It prescribes a separate Dharma appropriate to each Varna, each class and each stage of human life.

The prescribed rules by principle of Dharma are in tune with the nature. They regulate the behaviour and inter-personal the relationship of its component members. In order Dharma prescribes Separate roles for different communities is based on inherent qualities, aptitude and potentialities of its members. The Dharma of Brahmin is not that of a Shudra, or the Dharma of a student not that of an old man.

Follow Swadharma – ‘Dharma’ advices people to follow honestly their own duties, ‘Swadharma’. Following one’s own Dharma gives everybody else opportunities to live and prosper socially, professionally, economically, and spiritually according to their own rhythm. It thus prepares atmosphere guides people to do their jobs well well as others traditions and culture.

Will power to follow the path of ‘Swadharma’ – Moulding life according to Swadharma is not an easy task. It requires will power and a strong character. Therefore, persons with weak faculties finds it difficult to observe Dharma. Dharma along with Karma was the means, through which a person approached the desired goal of life, the ultimate aim being salvation from the cycle of birth and death.

Principle of Karma with Detachment – Doctrine of Karma guides people to remain true and to fulfil their duties earnestly, enables different groups to act cooperatively. It makes the inequalities, prevalent in the society, tolerable to an average Indian. It has ensured social harmony and prevented rivalries and jealousies. 

Central Theme of Gita – Karma is the central theme of Bhagwat Gita. The Philosophy of Gita is simple. It guides people ‘Rely on one’s own Laws and Traditions. Do one’s own duties/deeds without hesitation and with complete devotion towards God, and achieve what is generally achieved by such deeds.

Every act should be done in moderation – Gita teaches that control over mind is necessary for purification of Soul. And for purification of Soul, one should fulfil the duties assigned to him in proper manner and in moderation.

Detachment – Detachment is the doorway to self-realization and to have control over restless mind. If a person wants peace of mind, he should not try to feel elated with the feeling that he is the doer of the deeds. Dedicate the results of all your deeds to God. Then one can keep the mind free from attachment towards the results of his deeds. In that manner one can reach beyond the scope of the three qualities – (saintly, worldly lethargic).

Prepares atmosphere of co-existence Together these principles of Varna, Dharma and Karma have prepared an atmosphere of co-existence for different sections of its society – be it ruler or ruled, rich or poor; and  have held together different castes and communities having diverse languages and practices for generations – thus making unity in diversity a reality.

Sanatan Dharma [Eternal values) according to Hinduism – It is said that “Things that are  perfected by nature are better than anything else.” Sanatan Dharma nurtures the basic instincts of human beings over nature, after a deep study of natural instincts, inherent attributes and natural behavioral pattern and takes care of the basic physical, mental and spiritual needs of the human beings at different stages of life.

Sanatana means eternal or beyond the time and Dharma means duty. Sanatan Dharma is the Universal Truth, which sustains the very core of Universe and its beings. It tells about general norms of conduct at different stages of life. Its rules are universal, eternal, applicable to all human beings  and much above race, caste or creed. Even today these are as relevant as it was earlier.  

Many learned sages and intellectuals, belonging to different communities studied for centuries, the natural instincts, behavioral pattern, inherent attributes and felt needs (physical, mental and spiritual) of people at different stages of life. They attached great importance to social values. On basis of their experiences and deep thinking,  a program of eternal values – a compact life package known as ‘Sanatan Dharma’ was formulated. The whole scheme is in conformity with time and forces of nature. Indian philosophers and Epic writers attached great importance to social values.

Work is WorshipHindu Philosophy has taught people that Work is Worship. All kinds of work are worth pursuing and respectable, if done in its sincerely. No work is superior/high or humble/inferior/derogatory/ or waste. Any work done in its true spirit could never be derogatory or a waste.

Work is done not so much for its external reward, but for the intrinsic satisfaction towards realization of ‘Swadharma’. Society assigns everybody a specific task to do as per one’s own karmas and destiny. Proper assignment and performance leads the whole society to live quality of life. While performing Swadharma without hesitation, a person gets earns a rightful place in the society and a feeling of being an integral part of the society, not an outsider to it. Society itself assigns each one a specific duty to do. Do the duties/deeds assigned by the society without hesitation and with complete devotion towards God, and achieve what is generally achieved by such deeds.

Hindu culture tells assured people that proper performance of Swadharma with honesty and sincerity assures both, worldly honour and spiritual happiness. The work of a priest, warrior, manual worker or yogi, all are equally important for the society and are, therefore, right, respectable and worth pursuing.

The idea of white-collared jobs, blue-collared jobs and menial/derogatory jobs is the contribution of Western world. After industrial Revolution, . It has attracted the attention of common men to a great extend in modern times.

Assignment of work on the basis of Attitude and aptitude – Principle of Varna believes in Principle of ‘Division of Labour’. According to it, individuals differ from each other in natural endowments, intelligence, aptitudes, attitudes, skills, personal needs and other innate characteristics.  Their physical strength, mental capacity and moral aspirations, like and dislikes, inclination and expectations are not the same. Different activities should be assigned to different sections of society according to its natural endowment/inclinations, qualities and aptitudes/psychological characteristics.

Gunas the basis of stratification of Hindu society – Varna system has classified Hindu society into four Varnas/social groups according to their Gunas (Qulifications) – Brahmins (Learners); Khhatrias (Warriors), Vaishyas (Business men) and Shudras (workers under the guidance of above three groups). “Sat” or “austerity is required for pursuing knowledge, “Rajas” is the quality needed for actions of courage, bravery, power and protection of the weak. Initially, according to Smritis it was not birth, but the qualities and deeds, which fitted one into a particular group. But, later on, upbringing, atmosphere and convenience tended to make these groups hereditary.

As against this system, employment/occupation/profession of people depend on number of formal degrees/ diplomas/certificates.

Eternal values (Sanatan Dharma) according to HinduismIt is said that “Things that are  perfected by nature are better than anything else”. Sanatana (eternal/beyond the time) Dharma (duty) is the Universal Truth which sustains the very core of Universe and its beings. It tells about general norms of conduct at different stages of life. Its rules are universal, eternal, applicable to all human beings  and much above race, caste or creed. Even today these are as relevant as it was earlier.  

Many learned sages and intellectuals, belonging to different communities studied for centuries, the natural instincts, behavioural pattern, inherent attributes and felt needs (physical, mental and spiritual) of people at different stages of life. On basis of their experiences and deep thinking,  a program of eternal values – a compact life package known as ‘Sanatan Dharma’ – was formulated. It attaches importance to social values.

Sanatan Dharma nurtures the basic instincts of human beings over nature. It takes care of the basic physical, mental and spiritual needs of the human beings at different stages of life. The whole scheme is in conformity with time and forces of nature.

For living life fully and fruitfully and aging gracefully, a person has to pass through four stages of life and perform different duties in different stages of life. Sanatan Dharma defines clearly rights and duties of human beings at each stage of life and achieve Sachchidanand (Bliss, consciousness and knowledge). It teaches to do the duties sincerely at right time and  right age of life. According to it, there is one pre-stage followed by four stages in human life. These stages are:-

Different Stages of human life – For living life fruitfully and aging gracefully, every person passes through four stages of life, At each stage s(he) performs different duties. Sanatan Dharma prescribes clearly rights and duties of human beings at each stage of life and achieve Sachchidanand (Bliss, consciousness and knowledge). According to it, there is one pre-stage followed by four stages in human life. These stages (Ashramas) are:-

Pre stage of Balyavastha or Childhood – The first 5 or 6 years of infants’ and toddlers’ life is the pre-stage of learning. It is the best period of human life. During this  period, the ground for  learning is prepared at home under the full-time attention, loving care and guidance of his parents. A child learns and understands the first lesson of real life, about human relationships and mannerism. Constant interaction between parents and children prepares an atmosphere for development of child’s mental and physical faculties and character. It is the responsibility of parents to shape the attitude of their children. Obedience is expected from child.

First stage of human life, Brahamcharya Ashram – Brahmacharya Ashram stage of human life is the right time for learning. Students should lead a simple and disciplined lifestyle. They should devote their time to acquire knowledge without bothering much about their comfort zone. Teacher’s job is to impart knowledge, shape attitudes, cultivate skills and build work habits of their students, so that after completing their course, people are better adjusted in real life environment. They should help students to develop their mental and moral faculties and guide them to have control over their senses, mind and intellect. At this stage society rears, protects and gives its best as heritage to coming generation.

Second Stage of human-life, Grihasthashram/Family-life – This phase is the most energetic time of human life, to rejoice the life, may be as a family-man (Grahastha/housholder) or a bachelor.

Grihasthashram has been given a high place of honour. Life offers opportunities to utilize one’s intellectual and physical capabilities. During this phase a man or woman to pursues and fulfils the dreams/desires or 4 goals of life, with greater emphasis on first three – Dharma (piety, morality, duties), Artha (wealth, health, means of life), Kama (love, relationships, emotions) and Moksha (liberation, freedom, self-realization).[7] 

At this stage, Householders are directly or indirectly in contact with the whole society. They give protection to their dependents in consistent with their capacity, dictates of their knowledge and conscience. Dependents include elders, children, members of extended family and strangers in need of help. They contribute to other sections of society, They are responsible to sustain people belonging to other three Ashramas, to look after their management and the needs (like provision of food and financial help).

Third Stage of life, Vanaprastha Ashram/Adulthood – Grihathashram is conceptually followed by Vanaprastha Ashram. It is time to lead a retired life. After fulfilling familial liabilities, time comes in life to start process of withdrawal, delegation of authority to next generation, detachment from familial bonds and renunciation of worldly pleasures. More time should be spent in contemplation. Time can be utilized by doing social service and attending spiritual discourses.

Running after luxurios life style or Material success at this stage is not the aim. It is the time for ‘Simple living and high thinking’. Elders can provide extended care, to help in taking decisions, maintaining discipline within their respective groups and taking care of and helping weak and helpless members like poor, widows or destitute.

Fourth Stage of life, Sanyas (renunciation) – It is a time to prepare oneself to leave this world and go to an unknown world. It is time of complete detachment, resignation and renunciation. Realization of spirituality and wisdom is the aim. A person is completely free from any obligation.

Hindu philosophy considers these four stages as a facet of Dharma concept, something essential to completing the full development of a human life and fulfilling all the needs of the individual and society.[3][7]

Earlier, when human life was not so complicated and men were closer to nature, people could follow the principles of Sanatan Dharma without much difficulty. With the erosion of moral values and life becoming more and more complex, it became difficult for people to practice it.

Knowledge, necessary for understanding – Vedas tell that creation and quest for knowledge is a constant process, without any beginning or an end. It is a never ending process (‘Neti’, ‘Neti’). Indian  Sages (Rishis and Munies) believed that even Vedas are not the end for quest for knowledge or prescribes any final absolutes.

According to Gita, Senses are superior to the body, Mind is superior to the Senses and Knowledge or intellect is superior to the Mind. Knowledge is better than Abhyas (practice), Meditation is better than Knowledge. Renunciation of the fruits of action is still better than Meditation for peace.

Knowledge is necessary for giving Karma its due meaning, direction and value. Gita says that ‘action’/’deed’ should be combined with intellect (positive energies). Ignorance leads to futile efforts destroying direction. There are choices before everyone – either to take any action with knowledge and positive attitude or do a deed with ignorant/negative mindset.

Self-discipline, self-reliance and self-restraint – Hindu culture gives importance to the considerations of self-discipline, morality, and knowledge. Hindu culture suggests all to lead a self-restraint and self-disciplined life in all respect, be it in the matter of daily routine, occupation or inter group relationship.

Earlier, Hindu society ranked different social groups on the basis their lifestyle and discipline they observe and usefulness of their work to the society as a whole. Knowledge, spirituality, morality, hygiene, cleanliness of body and mind (concept of purity and impurity) were the considerations, which determined the social, economic or political status of a group within society vis-a vis other social groups. Purer a varna or caste was, higher it was considered. And the higher it was, greater were the self-restrictions on its behaviour through rituals.

Discipline was inculcated amongst ignorant masses, and a sense of direction was given to them through infinite variety of rituals, prayers, practices, customs and meditation.

Tolerance and acceptance/interdependenceHindu culture values interdependence, acceptance and tolerance as –

(a) It accepts that there are different paths leading to God and be humane; (b) It gives complete liberty to worship any god or goddess of their choice, as well as use their own methods of worship; (c)It does not impose its own codes of conduct on other faiths; (d) It is liberal enough to see atheism as a legitimate pursuit.

Ethos of Hinduism – Hinduism firmly believes in the principles, ‘Live and let live’, ‘Vasudhaiv-Kutumbakam’ (The whole world is one family). Truth, Ahimsa, peace and non-aggression are the hallmark of Hindu culture. It can be seen everywhere in common men’s way of life and is the integral part of Indian ethos. Indians  endure without much protest injustice and unfairness until they are pushed right to the wall. It has prevented its people to exercise coercion, force, violence or aggressions.

Concedes validity to all the religions – Tolerance is most evident in the field of religion.  Hindu faith in an all pervading omnipresent god, multiplicity of god and goddesses as representing some portion of the infinite aspect of the Supreme Being, inspires it to accommodate people of all faiths.  Hinduism concedes validity to all the religions and does not lay down strictures against any faith or reject any religion or its god as false.  That is why, all the twelve major religions of the world are present and flourishing in India without much hindrance. 

Entered into modern era without any cultural break – In the past, intolerance of people elsewhere in the world had compelled the people to work under the threat of a whip or led to bloody revolutions as had happened in ancient Greece, Rome or other European countries. However, tolerance in India had kept on adapting itself to changing times and had prevented people from taking up the path of violence. It is continuously internalizing the changes and has kept on adapting itself to changing times. India has entered the modern era without any cultural break.

Administration is one such area, where tolerance is harmful, as it not only hinders the development, but also pushes the nation backwards. Hindu people tolerate inefficiency of the administration, corruption, scandals, scams, even criminalization of politics without much protest. They do not mind much oppression and exploitation by powerful lobbies in the society. Elsewhere in the world, such situations would have led to strong protests/bloody revolutions.

Hinduism a wonderful example of assimilation and Inclusiveness – More than anywhere else in the world, India holds a multitude of thoughts, processes them and practices them. There has been co-existence of varied belief, pattern and thought due to inter-mixing and cultural mingling.

Beauty of Hinduism lies in the way, it assimilated numerous social groups coming from different parts of the world at different points of time in waves immigrants, locals, tribal, professionals or others – into its mainstream unlike Islam or Christianity. It does not believe in conversion or imposing its beliefs, practices and customs on others. Hindu religion has neither repulsed any trend vehemently, nor allowed others to sweep its own established culture off the roots.

Caste-system used as a mechanism for inclusion of other groups – Caste system assigned each incoming new group a separate caste identity. Society remained stable, while offering a place to a new community. The system neither disturbed its existing internal social order nor prevented any new group to develop itself. Without any conversion, caste system made new groups its integral part. It never tried to annihilate their faith, originality, internal order, customs, culture or language. Instead, it gave all incoming groups freedom to prosper/make changes into their systems according to their internal rhythm.

Modern India – Everything is moving at a very fast speed in India due to globalization and modernization. It has influenced the thinking, mannerism and life-style of its people in big way. The whole atmosphere is in a state of turmoil. People are gradually loosing faith in traditional values and systems. Even institution like family has lost its sheen.

Political institutions are almost paralyzed because of corruption. And economy of the country is in a critical condition. It is question of ‘demand and supply’. Government does not have enough resources and infra-structure to meet public demands.

It is quite a tough job for India to cope with the new challenges. C. Rajagopalachari says If there is honesty in India today, any hospitality, any charity…. any aversion to evil, any love to be good, it is due to whatever remains of the old faith and the old culture. Now India is desperate to pick up the lost threads of its true culture, beliefs and trying to create an atmosphere where different identities could once again live together in harmony and can proudly say we belong to a nation known as India, Hindustan, and Bharat. 

IV Caste system

In the present understanding of caste, element of caste is dominant and a system has been considerably suppressed. The reality is that the roots of caste system are so deep that it is virtually impossible to think of India without caste system. Castes has its ethnic roots as denoted by Jati, and a ritualistic and symbolic significance in its Varna aspect. It has been one of the dominant features still running through the entire social fabric of India. Caste-system is inseparably related to Hinduism by traditional customs, values and systems. It is having both religious and social sanction behind it.

Don Martindale has described caste as “Caste was the system of social life, in which Hinduism was expressed. …  Caste and Hinduism succeeded in doing in India, what no state, no conqueror and no economy was able to do – the establishment of a single unified system of society throughout the whole of India (accommodating numerous semi-autonomous communities arising at many times and in many places), a system of society, which was able to comprise a greater range of local differences in a single system than any society has previously accomplished.”

Meaning of the term caste – The term “caste” was unknown in India. The terms ‘Varna and jaati’ were used earlier in ancient and medieval India to identify different social groups and sub-groups. The term ‘Caste’ has been in use ever since British came to rule India.

The term caste has originated from Portuguese “casta” meaning race, breed, ancestry, and from Latin word “Castus” “casto” meaning pure, chaste. Application to Hindu social groups was picked up by English in India 1610s from Portuguese casta “breed, race, caste,” earlier casta raça, “unmixed race,” from the same Latin word. The current spelling of English word is from this reborrowing.

Terms Varṇa (वर्णः) and Jaati – Varna is a Sanskrit word which means type, order, colour or class. ‘Jati’ which comes from the Sanskrit word ‘Jana’. ‘Jaāti’ refers to thousands of endogamous social groups, sub-groups and sub-sub- groups coming under each Varna, living across the subcontinent. A jati may be divided into exogamous groups based on the same gotras. (Dumont, Louis (1980), Homo hierarchicus: the caste system and its implications, University of Chicago Press, pp. 66–67) Castes have its ethnic roots as denoted by Jati, and a ritualistic and symbolic significance in its Varna aspect.

The origin of the words ‘Varna or Jaati’ can-not be found in one single authoritative text like Bible or Kuran, nor can it be attributed to one single founder, Jesus Christ or Mohammad Sahib. It is the development of thousands of years. to develop with the association of numerous social groups into it at different point of time. It started with the arrival of Aryans hereditary kinship and tribal groups in India in waves, from different parts of the world.

It is virtually impossible to think of India without caste system. It has bee one of the dominant features still running through the entire social fabric of India. Caste-system is inseparably related to Hinduism by traditional customs, values and systems.

Origin of the terms, ‘Varna‘/‘Jaati’ and ‘Caste’ – The origin of the words ‘Varna or Jaati’ can-not be found in one single authoritative text like Bible or Kuran, nor can it be attributed to one single founder, Jesus Christ or Mohammad Sahib. It is the development of thousands of years. to develop with the association of numerous social groups into it at different point of time. It started with the arrival of Aryans hereditary kinship and tribal groups in India in waves, from different parts of the world.

The term Caste was recorded officially in 1840 for the first time by European colonizers, to mean persons belonging to the same hereditary social group. Instead of using ‘Varna or Jati’ separately, they merged both the terms into one. Since then, the meaning and understanding about caste system has been changed drastically.

Caste system, a development of Thousands years Its origin of Caste-system can’t be found in one single authoritative text like Bible or Koran, nor can it be attributed to one single founder like Jesus Christ or Mohammad Sahib. It has taken thousands of years to develop with the association of numerous social groups into it at different point of time.

Different shades and meaning with changing times – Caste system has survived the vicissitudes of time, and saved itself by erosion from within and assault from outside. Credit of its prolonged life goes to its adaptability, flexibility and absorptive nature , which has internalized even the alien influences. It has taken different shades and meaning with the changing times and places. Once changed, it never returned to its original form. 

Wonderful process of assimilation – Wonderful process of assimilation and fusion of different social groups has been a continuous process of the Hindu civilization. It contributed to the cultural richness of Bharat.  All the sects present in India, whether foreign or indigenous, have been influenced greatly by Hindu thinking, caste system, its practices and systems.

Such flexibility is not seen in the West. When Christianity broke away from Judaism, it departed totally from the common cultural traditions.  Therefore, it is very difficult for the Western world to understand and appreciate Indian culture fully.

Different stages of making and evolution of Varna/caste Following are the different stages of the evolution of Varna/caste –

Caste during Ancient period As Basham has pointed out, Caste system may well be called a natural response of many small and primitive groups of people, who were forced to come to terms, with a more advanced economic and social system. Caste system provided a mechanism, by which numerous discrete tribes, all sorts of groups and associations arising for political, sectarian or other reasons could be internalized and preserved within the whole.

Pre-Vedic period – The making of caste system can be traced from the times of pastoral tribal society. Roughly ten millennia ago, people lived  in small migratory groups, living the life-style of wandering “nomadic herdsmen”. These small groups mostly lived in hilly areas, not far from rivers. Tribal communities were nomadic or semi nomadic and egalitarian. They depended on nature for its subsistence.

Settled agricultural society – Then came the period of making of the agricultural societies. People started  cultivating land and settled down Gradually pastoral tribal society transformed into a settled agricultural society, confining its activities and life within a small area or territory. Clans and tribes settled permanently in different parts of the country. As reflected in ‘Rigveda’, during early stages of Vedic Age people ceased to be a wandering people, started a settled life.

Entry of Aryans – Aryans arrived in India in waves at different points of time. Aryans, after entering into India first conquered its original inhabitants of Northern part of India, colonized and established kingdoms, then Deccan and then south. During the period, it was possible to have high ranks, but not high social classes.

Development of structures and systems – Socio-political structures and systems were evolved leisurely over about 2000 years (roughly between 2000 BC to about 600 BC) and kept on coping with the changes slowly, time had brought in. In the beginning people hardly possessed more than what was needed for their subsistence/survival. The practice of cultivation, rise of crafts and iron tools transformed the egalitarian society into fully agricultural and stratified society sometime during 6th century BC.

Initially a simple class division was seen in the social structure, i.e. nobility and the ordinary tribesmen. Slowly, possession of land, slaves and hired laborers started. People started producing and possessing more than they needed. The kings collected their surplus yields.

The power of kings gradually increased. For regular collection, administrative and religious methods were devised. Vedic society is considered as the most advanced civilization in every respect – be it its social structure under “Varna System”, or its Hindu culture or style of governance. Society was relatively egalitarian one. There was no distinct hierarchy of socio-economic classes or castes.

Castes during Vedic Period – Historical time of the origin and slow but steady evolution of Varna system is estimated around 3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE. It was the period of beginning of Indus Valley Civilization.

Initially, Vedic Culture originated and flourished in northern parts of India (on the Indo-Gangetic Plains of the Indian subcontinent) and later on spread throughout India during 1500 BC and 500 BC. It had emerged when migrants groups mixed up with the indigenous people (popularly known as Hindus). Rules of endogamy, ritual purity, interdependence and hierarchical order of social units were the main features of Varna system. Observance of restrictions for self-discipline, clearly defined rights and duties and specialization were its important traits.

Developments happened during this period – This was also the time when numerous Aryan hereditary kinship and migrating tribal groups arrived here in waves, from different parts of the world and mixed up with its  indigenous people.

The assimilation of numerous racial, professional, immigrants, tribal and other groups into Hindu fold gave birth to caste system. Caste system accommodated and bound them into a single cultural system. Each incoming new group was assigned a separate caste name. Hindu religion has neither repulsed any trend vehemently, nor allowed others to sweep its established culture off the roots.Caste during Position of castes during Medieval Period Many changes took place, during these periods, in the caste system. Turks, Afghans and Mughals continuously invaded India. Invasion of Ghazni (998-1030 AD), and others, the establishment of Slave Dynasty (1206-1290), Khilji Dynasty (1290-1320), Tuglak Dynasty (1320-1412 AD) Sayyed Dynasty (1414-51) Lodi Dynasty (1451-1526) and Mughal Empire (1526 to 1757) continuously pressurized Hindu Social system. It resulted in the downfall of Hindu Raj and old Hindus values. Earlier they drained out the wealth of the nation to foreign lands.  But afterwards, they conquered and made India their homeland.    The religious reaction of Hindus to Muslim excesses resulted in rigidity of rituals. During this period Hinduism turned inwards.

Imposition of Zaziya on Hindus and the intolerance of rulers towards their Hindu subjects made it difficult for Hindus to preserve their identity and indigenous culture.  The conscious efforts by them to preserve their values and honour, made the caste rules and rituals stricter and more rigidly applied than before[i]. Many social evils like Sati Pratha; Dowry, Purdah system etc. took birth.

Besides, the feudalistic attitude, extravagance and luxurious life style of Mughal rulers and those at the helm of authority, increased the disparity between the rulers and the ruled.

The institution of caste was independent of the government.   It made the Hindu society stable but not static. Decentralized self-regulated systems were the mode in the social, political, and economic life of the country.  The influence of caste system was immense on public minds because:

  • The cultural endowments formed the basis of social status.
  • The ranking was not based on wealth or material gains, but on intellectual and spiritual attainments and on self-discipline.
  • As late as the eighteenth century, the hierarchical order of different castes was not established over large parts of the sub-continent.  The position of Brahmins was at the top and that of Shudras at the bottom, but in between the two, there was an ambiguity about the status of several castes, which was acceptable to all concerned.  This, itself, gave a large element of fluidity in the system.
  • There was a close association of caste with occupation.  As leading sociologists pointed out, in addition to their hereditary occupation, agriculture and army were open to all sections of society. These professions were open and accommodated many groups – indigenous or alien.
  • There was no dearth of employment for aspiring workers.  A substantial labor market existed.  The basic qualification for belonging to any group was mainly the possession of qualifications to do that specific job.
  • Members of any caste group did not exercise monopoly over a profession. It is an established fact of Indian History that Brahmin or even Shudras sometimes became the kings. Khatriyas and Shudra were accepted and revered as philosophers or spiritual teachers.  In order to increase their strength, there were times, when inter caste marriages took place in the past.
  • Upward mobility was possible for different groups.  Agriculture and military service were accessible to anybody.  The recruits in Military came from all strata of society including the lowest in the ritual terms.  There was no discrimination in recruitment and treatment of soldiers of any kind on the basis of caste.  Rajput status was given to soldiers.[Jain Girilal – The Hindu Phenomenon p9, 1994.]
  • Alternative ideologies and styles of life were available in India.[ii] The plurality of society provided automatic checks and balances and controlled the arbitrariness or unbalanced growth of power of any group.  Indian peasantry in UP, Bihar and MP were armed.  In fact, non-Kshatriya peasant provided leadership of most armed bands, which were numerically predominant and economically and politically strong at the village level. 
  • The monopoly of powerful peasant was a reality of the rural life of Medieval India. The Brahmin strongholds were the centers of learning.
  • The floating population, consisting groups like Gujjars, Bhattis, Rajput rangers, who remained outside caste system, were so strong, that they terrorized settled agriculturists for centuries.
  • Forests, which competed with arable land in size and importance, till the 18th century, gave shelter and food to large sections of society and served as havens for those in search of escape from society.     Caste system acted as a major force, through which Hindus retained their cultural identity, while living under an alien political order, whether it was Mughal, Portuguese or British.  It was the major force for the failure of Islam, Christianity and other religions to make headway in India even after mass conversion.
  • The local character of caste system, during pre-British period, made close interaction and cooperation between different castes, a reality.  Still they enjoyed a large measure of freedom in respect of their internal customs, rituals and life styles.  All the activities of urban or rural areas were confined within a small area, having very little links with the outside world because of the slower means of transport.  Only merchants visited different distant places. 
  • The local societies used to be self-sufficient mutually `supporting and caring for each other.  All castes, living in a village or city, were bound together by economic and social ties and had a strong bond of mutual dependence.  Rituals required the participation of all castes. Even untouchables were assigned important social duties. Harijan women helped all castes at the time of child birth, sweepers beat drums in front of Hindu’s houses or in front of a procession at the time of an important ceremony, village barber spread news, arranged marriages and served food during celebrations.  Occasionally non-Brahmins or Harijans served as priests of temples of goddesses like Sita or Kali, where all castes made offerings.
  • There was not much disparity between different forward or lower castes.  The tropical climate of the country compelled the people to the distribution of surplus, as it was difficult to store anything for long.
  • There was hardly any question of all India tyranny of any caste group.  There was not a single group identifiable as very strong-dominating all the others, or as an enemy to defeat.  Laws remained unmodified and flexible with the capacity to adapt to local customs and situations.  People in power and position cared for the lower castes in order to acquire and retain local followers. The system made upper castes generous in matters of food, drinks and loans, when required.[Sriniwas MN,  Times of India, Dated September 9, 1990, p 6.]
  • Teachings of Shri Chaitnya, Nanak, Kabir, Bhakti and Sufi saints gave some breathing space to the rigidity of caste system, which suffocated the society during medieval India.

Pr. Rajni Kothari says comments that till medieval times: –

  • There was a hierarchical social order, through which infinite ambiguities had been at once tolerated and regulated.
  • A multi-cultural framework of governance existed, which had restrained hegemonical and majority’s dominating tendencies.
  • A highly flexible ethics code was there, through which constant and continuing distortions, clash of personalities, major paradoxes in elite behaviors and instances of humiliation, acrimony and hypocritical behaviors in the conduct of public affairs were managed.[Times of India, dated July 28, 1997,  p13.]

Pr. Shah says, The scheme of life practiced in India for more than 2000 years showed a comprehensive and coordinated planning, which has yet to be correspondingly conceived of or similarly attained in any other part of the world.[i]

Hinduism and Caste system during British Imperial ruleEnd of Mughal rule – The downfall of Mughal Empire had started around 1750. That was the time when a British trading Company stared conquering India. The Government of India Act of 1858 brought an end to company’s rule and placed India directly under the Crown. With it ended the era of expansion and commercial exploitation and the nation ushered into the era of economic exploitation and policy of divide and rule. Since then, the meaning and understanding about caste system has been changed drastically.

Ideological Attack on Hinduism and Caste System – British rulers made purposely an ideological attack on Hinduism. They developed a complex in the minds of Indian intellectuals about efficacy of caste system. British rulers portrayed Hinduism as “discriminatory,” “iniquitous,” “exploitative,” “oppressive” “barbarous,” “uncivilized” and “highly stratified”.

Ward alleged “Not only is the caste contrary to every principle of justice and polity, it is repugnant to every feeling of benevolence. The social circle is almost invariably, composed of persons of the same caste, to the careful exclusion of others. It aims one class of men against another; it gives rise to greatest degree of pride and apathy. It forms a sufficient excuse for not doing an act of benevolence towards another, that he is not of the same caste, Ney, a man dying with thirst will not accept a cooling drop of water from the hands or the cup of a person of a lower caste.”

British rulers had intentionally highlighted the weaknesses and suppressed the salient feature of caste as a system. They held caste system responsible for evil social practices, feudalistic attitude, backward thinking, belief in dogmas and superstitions sustained by a unique set of rituals, and whimsical concept of purity and pollution.

The regenerating and degenerative role of British rule – Karl Marx had remarked that British had a double mission in India, one destructive, the other regenerating; the annihilation of the old Asiatic Society and laying the material foundation of Western Society in Asia.

The regenerating character was concerned with social transformation through modern education, modernization in economic sphere, political unification of the country and laying foundations for many democratic institutions.

The reactionary and destructive character can be seen the way British rulers divided and ruled the country and their adverse effect on the social and economic position of India. System of giving Preferences to certain social groups fanned Communalism and Casteism. They misused the data collected by Census Operations for political reasons. System of holding Elections has led evil practices to like – Vote-bank politics, criminalization of politics and corruption.

Why Western world is mystified – Western world is mystified by amazing pluralities and unique social structure of India based on caste. It is difficult for the western world to understand the role of Hinduism or caste as a system – past or present – in Indian society. Complete localization and unfamiliarity makes it difficult to understand caste as a system in its totality and to know the nuances, the nature, role (both in the past as well as in present) and value of caste as a system. Because –

Conceptualized, originated and practiced exclusively in India – Caste system is a unique way of stratifying the society. It has been conceptualized, originated and practiced exclusively in India. Hinduism and its have given a distinguished identity to Indian society.

Caste not class basis of stratification – While in Western world, usually anthropologists, historians and sociologists identify ‘class’, as universal basis of stratification within a society, Indian society has been stratified socially on the basis of Varna/caste-system.

Power and social status associated with wealth – In materialistic Western societies, wealth has always been associated with power, authority and social status. In India, its Caste system has separated wealth from status, power from authority, pursuit and achievement in knowledge from temptations of worldly comforts. The status of a person or a caste is ranked on the basis of knowledge, discipline and moral standards, and not on the basis of material success, or control of power. Similarly the greatness of a nation is judged by the way government governs the nation, and not on the basis of the size of a state or its treasury.

Stress on duties rather than rights – Whereas, Western cultures have grown around the idea of `rights‘, forming the natural foundation of human relationship, caste system evolves around the concept of “duty, tolerance and sacrifice”. Emphasis on duty usually makes a person or a group humble and tolerant.

No conversion – Unlike Christianity or Islam, Hinduism has made new groups its integral part without any conversion and brought them under one umbrella without annihilating their own faith.

Misuse of Census Data – The knowledge of such diversity of Indian society and multiplicity of castes and sub-castes helped the rulers to instigate caste consciousness, caste animosities and make caste a tool in political, religious and cultural battles that Hindus fought amongst themselves from now onwards without any sign of relief even as of today.

Started Practice of “Preferences’ in Education and Government jobs – During the end of 19th century, British rulers started practice of “Preferences” by giving non-Brahmins financial assistance and preferences in education and Government employment at local and provincial level. It served double purpose for them – getting credit for amelioration and protection of downtrodden and keeping natives busy in their in-fights. Later on, it gave birth to the ‘Policy of Reservations’.

Reformists during early 20th Century – Modern education, Western literature and philosophy widened the mental horizons of visionary national leaders and reformers. They welcomed rationality and other good features of and made good use of liberal, and humanitarian ideas/thoughts of Modern Western World. But at the same time destructive nature of new policies alarmed national leaders. National leaders got alarmed at the erosion of Indian Culture and divisible policies of the rulers. They realized the impact of British racial discrimination and their repressive policies on the Indian people.

The destructive character of British imperialism lit the fire and gave birth to national movement. Economic loot, political subjugation, assertion of lordly superiority over the subject on the ground of race, assumption of a haughty exclusiveness, persistent insulting and supercilious behavior towards all Indians, exclusion of Indians from all places of authority and responsibility and denial of their capacity for self-governance united Indians against British rule.

Reformists talked about the greatness of Hindu Vedic culture and about Vedas as the source of all knowledge and truth. Swami Vivekanand founded the Rama Krishna Mission tried to reveal to the world Indian Philosophy and culture. Some reform institutes like Vivekanand’s or Rama Krishna Mission or Theosophical Society of India tried to familiarize the Western World, too, to the charm and graciousness of Indian Culture.

They advised people not to be swayed away by Western culture. First they should know their own heritage and try to revive what is good in it. They gave a call to “Return to Vedas”. He said, “Each nation like each individual has a theme in this life, which is its center, the principle note, around which every other note comes to form the harmony. If any nation attempts to throw off its national vitality the direction which has become its own through the transmission of centuries the nation dies.”

Rational Interpretation of Hindu systems and values – Many intellectuals leaders and reformists did the rational interpretation of Hindu philosophy, values and systems, telling the masses that –
•Knowledge alone is the key to truth.
•Vedas has been conceived through intellectual contemplation and empirical observation and Upnishads (speculative interpretation of Vedas or Mythology) are the creation of human imagination.
•Their rationality is in conformity with the laws of nature.
•No one belongs to any social group because of birth. It is inter-changeable and depends on ones thoughts and deeds.
•True religion does not discriminate mankind in terms of race, colour, nationality, caste or gender.
•The most noble task of every individual is to work for the enlightenment and uplift the weaker persons.
•The markings of Indian culture are simplicity and solidity.

Hinduism and Caste Post Independent India – From 15th of August 1947 onwards, Independent India is committed to democratic, secular and egalitarian principles as enshrined in the Constitution of India. Preamble of the Indian Constitution promises to secure to all its citizens: JUSTICE, social, economic and political; LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation.

After Independence, many of the discriminatory practices and deformities developed into the thinking and systems have been brought to an end slowly but steadily. Hinduism or Caste system don’t enjoy legal or religious sanctions.

In social arena, both Hinduism and caste-system have become quite liberal. Old style of authority and power exercised by caste-elders has already diminished except for a few rural areas especially in Haryana and Rajasthan. Restrictions or interactions between different castes arising due to considerations for purity and pollution are fading away from public life even from rural areas. Traditional barriers on marriage, hereditary occupations and commonality are loosing its importance. Expulsion from castes means little, while earlier it meant complete social ostracism.

But ever since mid-sixties, political leaders of modern India have found both Hindu religion and caste as the easiest and most powerful tool to sway public opinion emotionally and to create a larger vote bank for them. In a way, it may be called ossification of both, fallen into the hands of power brokers and vote guzzlers.

Under-currents of power-politics has pushed the real-issues like poverty, unemployment, inflation etc into background. Present Modi government has taken some bold decisions to undo some past mistakes. But single person alone or with the cooperation of a few of his sincere colleagues cannot bring desired results overnight. 

In the present day vote-bank policy, based deeply on the game of numbers, the voice of the backbone of society, the real sincere and honest middle class, is being continuously throttled mercilessly. Being the government of a welfare democratic government, the Authorities talk, think and plans about the social development of lower castes/class or about upper business class for economic reasons.

In a democratic country the presence of a strong opposition party with positive thinking is  important. However, at present there is a near complete absence of an Opposition party, which can keep a check over the arbitrariness of party in power and keep a balance. 

Conclusion –  After analysing the whole picture from beginning till end, it can be said that Hindu way of life along with its caste system das created an atmosphere, where different social groups, castes and communities could live most of the time with peace and harmony. It has inspired all sections of society to lead a self-restraint and self-disciplined life in all respect, be it in the matter of daily routine, occupation or inter caste relationship, in order to move up and earn respect of society. Most of the times, the Indian society has been able to develop  an attitude of reconciliation rather than refutation, cooperation rather than confrontation and co-existence rather than mutual annihilation.” (Khan, Democracy in India, pp 4-5)

Linking untouchability with Hindu’s Varna system is unfair. Conquered groups, individuals or groups engaged in unclean occupations, clinging to the practices, which were not considered respectable such as using foul language, persons born illegitimately or the groups involved in anti-social activities were treated as Shudras. In the biginning of 20th century, Shudras were divided into two – Touchable and untouchables for political reasons.

Similarly, Hinduism can not be blamed for the individual’s misery or deprivation. According to it, Adharma” (immoral behavior), “Alasya” (laziness) and Agyan (ignorance) are responsible for all evils, like poverty, unemployment, exploitation and miseries of people. 

Sir John Shore (Sir John Shore, the Governor General of India during the period 1793-1798) had observed that in spite of being their rulers, Hindus regarded Britishers at par with the lowest natives, no matter how strong or powerful were they. Even some Brahmins associated with unclean jobs like, Mahabrahmins performing last rites, have also been treated, more or less like Shudras. There were some instances in the past, when non-Brahmins or Harijans served as priests of temples of goddesses like Sita or Kali, where all castes made offerings. 

It is only a half-truth that Varna system has given the lowest rank to Shudras in social hierarchy, but Hinduism and its caste system have never prevented Shudras or others to rise in the scale of society or to earn respect of the society. In the past, people belonging to lower strata held position of power/superior status or earned respect of Hindu society. Many warrior kings of Shudra and tribal origin sought Brahmins’ help to acquire Kshatriyas status for themselves. Many Shudras were accepted and revered as philosophers or spiritual teachers like .

In ancient India, Lord Rama, a king, ate half-eaten berries of Shabri – an untouchable. Lord Krishna’s foster parents Nand and Yashoda, who in today’s classification would be called OBC, get more respect than his real Kshatriya parents from Hindu society. Vashishtha, the principal of the conservative school of Brahmanism, was the son of Uravshi, a prostitute. Vishwamitra, the maker of the very Gayatri Mantra, the quintessence of the Vedic Brahmanism, was a Kshatriya. Aitreya, after whom the sacramental part of Rig-Veda is named as Aitreya Brahamana, was the son from a non-Aryan wife of a Brahman sage. Vyasa of Mahabharata fame and Balmiki, the original author of Ramayana, both untouchable according to present standards, were not ashamed of his origin and are highly respected persons all over India.

In middle ages, Sant Ravidas, Namdev, Tukaram, Malika, Sunderdas and several other saints, belonging to lower ranks, earned the same respect as any higher caste saint. There had been instances of people of lower ranks becoming kings.

Therefore, it is only to blackmail and incite emotionally the illiterate and ignorant people. Hinduism or caste system are not wholly responsible for Shudra’s isolation, deprivation, exploitation, low social status. They are treated inhumanly by anti-social elements. Their low status in traditional Hindu Society is because of their mannerism and foul language. Now nobody forces anybody to do menial, unsavoury and unclean jobs. Earlier the position was different. Past is past. Now every one has choice in matter of job. It is because of economic reasons and unemployment problem that people, irrespective of caste or creed do menial work. 

All troubles of lower strata of society started after the downfall of Hindu Raj and old Hindus values. Continuous invasions by Turks, Afghans and Mughals who earlier drained out the wealth of the nation to foreign lands and afterwards made India their homeland and ruled the country for centuries. It resulted in Hinduism turning inwards and observing all the rituals rigidly and blindly to save its distinct identity under foreign rule. Afterwards, feudalistic attitude, extravagance and luxurious life style of Mughal rulers and those at the helm of authority, increased the disparity between the rulers and the ruled.

Then during British rule in India, modernization an industrialization process has made many traditional occupations obsolete or less paying. Some jobs were regarded more hazardous and more time consuming. White collared jobs gained importance and manual work was discredited. People tried their best to escape from menial work.  More, a person withdrew from physical labour, more civilized, honoured and qualified he was regarded by modern society.

The British apathy towards indigenous skills, knowledge and occupations pushed millions of rural artisans, craftsman and small scale farmers, for whom work was essential for survival, backwards in a very subtle manner. It resulted in discrediting many traditional occupations and in destruction of Indian handicrafts and cottage industry. It scattered efforts, sense of direction and manufacturing skills of millions of artisans, craftsman, weavers etc.

A few of them joined modern occupations. Majority belonging to different castes could neither enter modern sector, nor could stick to their traditional occupations considering menial work derogatory and lost their creativity, sense of achievement and pride. Masses had no option, but to either join band of agricultural laborers, industrial workers, and marginal labor and increase number of poor and unemployed. Outcome of such a change has been casualty of workers first, afterwards their work style, commitment, motivation and culture.

Recently empowerment of backward and untouchable castes has becoming once again a buzz -word in political arena. Poverty is the most pervasive phenomenon, which cuts across all the barriers of caste religion and region. It has been estimated that despite numerous developmental plans, schemes and legislation, including Reservation Policy in higher education and jobs, there are about 500 million Indians are living in squalor.

There are many reasons responsible for their deprivation, agonies and poverty other than caste. Population explosion, illiteracy, unemployment, lack of awareness about opportunities to progress, insufficient wages in unorganized sector, indebtedness, politicization of caste system, obsolete forest and land policies and half-hearted implementation of developmental plans.   

Therefore, it can be said that it is not the malice of castes-Hindus, but the circumstances, that are pushing untouchables and some other backward castes away from the mainstream. Suffering from centuries old enslavement, suppression and ostracism deteriorated severely the condition of lower strata of society, stopped growth of their personality and made them dependent on others for their livelihood.

It is a humanitarian obligation of any civilized society to bring suitable changes to uplift and empower the submerged sections of society. Generally law follows social changes. But in India, after the Independence, the political leadership in their hurry and enthusiasm, tried to foster social changes through law.  In order age-old imbalances and cumulative disparities of power, wealth and culture, they have started politicization of Caste-system. They tried to integrate the whole country by turning it into a casteless society.

Unfortunately, instead creating a better future, it has generated other complications. Its paternalistic policies for bringing the submerged sections of the society into mainstream and creating a casteless society has not yielded the desired results, because –

  • Thes policies are devised by self-proclaimed leaders and administered by bureaucrats belonging mainly to the elite of urban society,
  • Plans are not rooted in local priorities or skills. The beneficiaries do not choose, design and implements the projects.
  • It has often represented patronage networks of those doling out the money.
  • So far, it has mostly benefitted the rural elite.

Recently, many reformers and religious/spiritual institutions are focussing their attention on community development. Many self-help groups (NGOs) have emerged all-over India. They bypass the government mechanisms and go straight communities.

Wherever properly harnessed, efforts of such self-help groups have yielded rich dividends. For example the Parsi and Christian communities, institutions run by Veerashaivya Mutts of Karnataka, Ramakrishan Mission, Radhaswami Satsang, Satya Sai Baba, Sadhu Vasvani and many others are practising community based approach for the development of humanity. They provide far better municipal, civic, educational, and medical services than the government.

Hinduism and Caste system, not obsolete so far – In-spite of all the accelerated changes in the society due to modernization process and tough times, The roots of Hinduism and  its ‘Varna/jati-Pratha’, now known as caste system, are so deep that it is virtually impossible to think of India without Hinduism and its caste system. Caste-system is inseparably related to Hinduism by traditional customs, values and systems. Hinduism and caste system is going strong in India because it has both religious and social sanction from Hindu society behind it.

Both Hinduism and its caste system have not become weak or obsolete in social arena even today, though during the very long period of its evolution, some evil practices caste system have developed. Many  many ideological attacks were launched on Hinduism and its caste system from time to time.  But so far, both have survived   the vicissitudes of time and saved itself from erosion from within or assault from outside.  Still, both these institutions give present Indian society a distinguished identity and a solid social structure with a system of thought, a way of life, and sense of direction. People should never forget that mostly traditional living is like an anchor, which keeps the boat in safe harbour. Once that the anchor goes, the boat is left at the mercy of wild waves on a stormy ocean.

Winding Up

Hinduism and Caste system, not obsolete so far – In-spite of all the accelerated changes in the society due to modernization process and tough times, The roots of Hinduism and  its ‘Varna/jati-Pratha’, now known as caste system, are so deep that it is virtually impossible to think of India without Hinduism and its caste system. Hinduism and caste system is going strong in India because it has both religious and social sanction from Hindu society behind it.Caste-system is inseparably related to Hinduism by traditional customs, values and systems.

Both Hinduism and its caste system have not become weak or obsolete even today, though during the very long period of its evolution, some evil practices caste system have developed. Many  ideological attacks have been were launched on both from time to time.  But so far, they have survived   the vicissitudes of time and saved itself from erosion from within or assault from outside.  Together these institutions have given Indian society a distinguished identity and a solid social structure with a system of thought, a way of life, and sense of direction.

 Assaults on Hinduism and its caste system – In the past, from time to time, there had been many assaults on Hinduism and its caste system, whenever rigidities and discriminatory practices of society in the name of religion or caste system had suffocated Indian society. After each assault, Hinduism and its caste system re-emerged with greater force. There arose alternative ideologies or styles of life, which gave people breathing space.

Rise of Buddhism in Ancient India, Sufi tradition of Islam and Bhakti movement of Hindus in medieval India (around 10th century), and reform movements of 19th and 20th centuries taught sympathetic attitude towards lesser human beings, brotherly love for each other and fellowship, love and respect all human beings irrespective of caste or creed and rejected practice of elaborate rituals and caste pretensions.

Hinduism along with its Caste system does not owe its exaltation to any outside force.  It had the capacity to look inwardly and correct that by itself.  Rise of Buddhism in Ancient India, of Bhakti movement in mediaeval India and Reform Movement of 19th and first half of the 20th centuries are examples of it.


[i]  Basham, Wonder That Was India, p51-52.

      Basham, Ibid pp181-82.

[iii]           Jain Girilal – The Hindu Phenomenon p9, 1994.

[iv]           Bayly CA., New Cambridge history of India Vol.II, 1988.

[v]             Sriniwas MN,  Times of India, Dated September 9, 1990, p 6.

[vi]     Times of India, dated July 28, 1997,  p13.

[vii]          Times of India, dated April 10, 1994, p3.

[viii]          Basham, Ibid  p152.

 


[i]            Basham, Wonder That Was India, p51-52.

          **********

[ii]           Basham, Wonder That Was India, p51-52.

          **********

 

  •  

 

October 25, 2019 - Posted by | General, Social and political values and systems |

No comments yet.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: