Latasinha's Weblog

Social and political Values and Systems in India.

Electoral politics without principles is a sin

Electoral Politics without Principle is a sin

A good physician treats the disease; the great physician treats the patient who has disease.”           William Osler

“Don’t find faults, find remedies.” Henry Ford

“Solve the problem, or leave the problem. Do not live with it.” Lord Budhha

Introduction – Democracy is the “government of the people, for the people and by the people.’ Modern representative democratic system has operated since the 17th century, Free and fair elections at frequent intervals is the life-line of any democratic government. Election is a formal group decision-making process or the usual mechanism, by which a people choose their representatives to hold public office.

Through free and fair electoral process, people formally delegate them the authority to form a government and  look after the welfare of the people, and development of the society and nation as a whole. Election process is also used in many other private and business organizations, from clubs to voluntary associations and corporations.

Many democratic policies and systems were introduced in Modern India  by British Imperial rulers in the beginning of 20th century like Elections at frequent intervals and Census Operations. In an effort to know about the people, whom they wanted to rule, throughout second half of the Nineteenth Century, British anthropologists worked hard to collect data and to catalogue various social groups and tribes living in India. For the first time, the data so collected drew the attention of the rulers, intelligentsia and public to the diversity of Indian society and multiplicity of social groups, sub-groups and sub-sub groups throughout India.

The way, British rulers implemented these policies of great scope, was in their own self-interest. They had exploited the gathered information, used material relating to social, demographic, linguistics, religious and cultural diversities of India for ‘divide and rule’ purpose very diplomatically. Then the system of elections had led to cut-throat competition for scarce positions of power and prestige under British Raj.  Government of India Act of 1909, popularly known as Minto Morley Reforms Minto-Morley Reforms, divided the population into two uncompromising communal groups. It also brought forefront the idea in the minds of other castes and communities to demand separate electorate for them as well. This way, electoral politics further divided Indian society into Brahmins, Non Brahmins, untouchables etc.         It had given rise to electoral politics based on the “Power in numbers”.                                                                                Granting of by known as, brought the idea of communal electorate to the forefront which le Electoral process gave political leverage to castes and communities on the basis of their numerical strength.

Principles of separation of power and checks and balances – A Democratic nation works on the principle of defining with clarity the role of different organs of the government, be it Legislature, Executive, Judiciary, and Bureaucracy or even regional and local government.

Most of the elected representatives of the people in legislatures are supposed to legislate, lay down policies, and monitor its implementation. Executive is there to supervise the bureaucracy to execute its plans and policies, Opposition parties role is to criticize the wrong decisions/actions of party in power. Each one keeps a control on the arbitrariness of others.  If each one does its job properly, there won’t be much problem.

To strengthen democracy is needed a civil society. However, these days neither the system, nor politicians nor the people are not fully prepared or trained to make governance in a Democratic a success. That is why Churchill has once described Democracy as “the worst of all systems”. The major problem with

Recently, a trend has developed that politicians join politics and fight elections not to serve the national interests and the people of the nation. They do so just to enter into the corridor of power. They do not hesitate to resort to unethical practices to create or enhance their vote-banks. They do the right things only after they have exhausted all the alternatives.

Most of the times, they woo voters by making false promises. They try to divide the electorate into numerous watertight compartments on the basis of their diverse identities and interests. The purpose behind it to create and enhance their vote-banks. They appease different section/sections of society by assuring them that if they win the elections they will give priority to specific interests of theirs over everything, be it over national interests and welfare of the society as a whole.    

Vote-bank politics removes the focus/attention of political leaders and their parties from real issues. They are neither able to diagnose the disease (real issues) properly and treat the patient honestly.   to cure the disease. Quite often their self-interest prevents them to find out required solutions to treat the disease properly or to set objectives, plans and policies to deal with real issues or work on it sincerely and honestly. 

Such an attitude of political leaders with vested interests leads the nation towards slow development.. How can the disease of maladministration be cured, if elections are neither free and fair nor fought on fair principles. Many politicians’ fight  election just to gain political power by hook or crook, and control the destiny of millions of people in their own interest  or the interests of their followers.

Vote-bank politics tend them not focus their attention on real issues. Their failure to diagnose the disease properly and do sincere efforts to cure it. They are neither able to treat the disease (real issues) nor the patient (development of the nation). How can the disease of maladministration be cured, if elections are not fought with fair objectives. Many politicians’ fight  election just to gain political power by hook or crook, and control the destiny of millions of people in their own interest  or the interests of their followers.

Vote-bank politics tend them not focus their attention on real issues. Their failure to diagnose the disease properly and do sincere efforts to cure it. They are neither able to treat the disease (real issues) nor the patient (development of the nation). How can the disease of maladministration be cured, if elections are not fought with fair objectives. Many politicians’ fight  election just to gain political power by hook or crook, and control the destiny of millions of people in their own interest  or the interests of their followers.

Vote-bank politics tend them not focus their attention on real issues. Their failure to diagnose the disease properly and do sincere efforts to cure it. They are neither able to treat the disease (real issues) nor the patient (development of the nation). How can the disease of maladministration be cured, if elections are not fought with fair objectives. Many politicians’ fight  election just to gain political power by hook or crook, and control the destiny of millions of people in their own interest  or the interests of their followers.

Both the politicians and people have become quite insensitive to dissent views. People to have become quite intolerant. They do not have much faith in the way elections are conducted. They do not have much choice in selecting their representatives. It is the job of the rival political parties and their representatives to select the candidates and woo the voters to vote for their prospective candidates. In such a situation how can function  efficiently and effectively in a democratic state?

India’s experiment on Democracy and electoral politics

Many democratic policies and systems were introduced in Modern India  by British Imperial rulers in the beginning of 20th century like Elections at frequent intervals and Census Operations. In an effort to know about the people, whom they wanted to rule, throughout second half of the Nineteenth Century, British anthropologists worked hard to collect data and to catalogue various social groups and tribes living in India. For the first time, the data so collected drew the attention of the rulers, intelligentsia and public to the diversity of Indian society and multiplicity of social groups, sub-groups and sub-sub groups throughout India.

British rulers implemented these democratic processes of great scope for their own self-interest. They had exploited the gathered information, used material relating to social, demographic, linguistics, religious and cultural diversities of India for ‘divide and rule’ purpose very diplomatically. The way the system of elections was implemented, it led to cut-throat competition, between different social groups, to get access to scarce elective positions of power and prestige under British Raj. 

Government of India Act of 1909, popularly known as Minto Morley Reforms Minto-Morley Reforms, divided the population into two uncompromising communal groups. It also brought the idea of communal electorate to the fore front. This way, electoral politics had further divided Indian society into Brahmins, Non Brahmins, untouchables etc. It came into their minds that Electoral process could give political leverage to them on the basis of their numerical strength. They also started demanding separate electorate for them as well. And thus electoral politics based on the “Power in numbers” has started in India, which is still continuing.

India got Independence from British rule in 1947. It chose the most difficult form of government, i.e. democracy. Since then Democracy is the backbone of our country. The Constitution of India is founded on the principle that all voices should be heard. Institutions are established here for the benefit of nation and its citizens. 

In 1950, Election Commission 0f India (ECI) was constituted. Its Head Quarters is at New Delhi, the capital of the nation. It is permanent Independent constitutional body. It owns responsibility of superintendence, direction and control the entire process of elections. It conducts elections of Parliament, legislatures at sate level or Union Territories or election to the offices of President and Vice-President. It decides the election schedules for the conduct of elections, be it general elections or bye-elections.

Election Commission has powers to prepare, maintain and periodically update the electoral rolls and supervise the nomination of candidates. It registers political parties and monitors the election campaigns including funding and expenditure of candidates. After the elections, it has conducted 17 general elections of the Lok Sabha and about 370 general elections of State Legislatures.

Beginning of electoral politics – Granting separate Muslim electorate through Government of India Act 1909,  (Minto Morley Reforms) brought the idea of communal electorate to the forefront. Granting special electorate to Muslims made the numbers important.

Around 1909, the non-Brahmin Community was divided into two – Backwards and Untouchables.  For the first time, the lowest strata of Hindu Community were conceptualized under the name of untouchables in the political circles.

New dimension to electoral politics – In 1908, the untouchables comprised about 24% of the Hindu Population and 16% of the total population. The suggestion of Census Commission, to exclude untouchables from Hindu group, gave a new dimension to casteism in politics. The suggestion of Census Commissioner to exclude untouchables from Hindu fold, in the forthcoming 1911 census, immediately increased the importance of untouchables in political circle, in social circle, and in their own eyes too.

Such a move alerted national leaders. This was not acceptable to Hindu leaders at any cost. Their fear proved to be right  as the number of Hindus has fallen down continuously. The following chart, based on various censuses, establishes this fact: Hindu population was 73.3% in 1881, 72.3% in in 1891, 70.3% in 1901, 69.3% in 1911, 68.4 in 1921, 68.2 in 1931 and 65.9 in 1941.

In order to overcome the problem, the Hindu leaders gave top most priority to the abolition of untouchability. They interpreted Vedas liberally and said that purified Varna System expressed equality. The reformers pointed out that untouchability was neither an outcome of caste system nor an integral part of Hinduism, but an external impurity and sinful blot on Hinduism.  They were clear that segregation of lower castes in Hindu Society was not based on economic status or their incapability to do any intellectual work, but on cultural grounds – unclean habits, undisciplined  life style, speaking foul and abusive language etc.  They tried to improve the status of untouchables through Sanskritisation. The emphasis was on education, moral regeneration and philanthropic uplift.[ii]

Factors that led to electoral-politics in India – The game of electoral politics has been started in India long ago, in the beginning of the 20th century, with the start  of democratic process through general elections,

·       Importance of numbers in elections –  The introduction of electoral politics, in the beginning of the 20th century gave rise to the idea of importance and Power in numbers in a democracy. Initially it gave political leverage to the non-Brahmin castes in Southern states of India on account of their numerical strength. And then, influence of non-Brahmins has been growing continuously in politics all-over India. 

While introducing elections in India, the British very diplomatically divided the Hindu population into two uncompromising groups viz. `We the Non-Brahmins and `They the Brahmins and caste Hindus. They instilled deeply in the minds of millions of unlettered Hindus, venom against each other.

Leverage to Non-Brahmins in politics – Power of numbers in elections gave political leverage to the non-Brahmin castes on account of their numerical strength.  Earlier non-Brahmin movements had economic and social thrusts demanding education and land for backwards and freedom from caste rigidities. Later, it resisted the hold of Brahmins in the spheres of education and jobs in government. Non-Brahmins’ demand for a share in modern callings was quickly recognized by the British. They acquired considerable amount of political clout, in early 20th century, with the introduction of electoral politics. Since then, their influence in politics has grown enormously.

·       Census operation – Census operations had been started with a purpose to gather information about social, demographic, linguistics, religious and cultural diversities of India. It was later on exploited by imperial rulers.

After consolidating their position, the British Government in India made an effort to know about the people, whom they want to rule and chalk out strategies for the colonial governance. A systematic and modern population census, in its present form was conducted non synchronously between 1865 and 1872 in different parts of the country. This effort culminating in 1872 has been popularly labelled as the first population census of India. However, the first synchronous census in India was held in 1881.                           

British anthropologists worked very hard to collect data. For the first time, the Census operations drew the attention of the rulers, intelligentsia and public to the diversity of Indian society and multiplicity of castes and sub-castes throughout India. 

·       Introduction of Modern education system – British imperialists used modern education system to create differences between different castes and communities.

During British rule Modern education system was started in1834-35. On one hand, Indian people got access to the enlightened spirit of many liberal thinkers, like Locke, Mill Rossseau, Voltaire, Spencer and Burke; and the knowledge about English, French, American revolutions, through modern education. It offered to Indian intelligentsia, the key to the treasures of scientific and democratic thought of Modern West. It opened up the doors of knowledge and widened the mental horizons of Indian intelligentsia.

On the other hand, the rulers Discrediting Indian values and systems. Through introduction of modern education, British rulers tried  to develop a complex in Indian minds about their heritage and social values and systems.  British rulers exaggerated the distortions developed into the system during century’s after the decay of Hindu Raj. They carefully avoided telling the whole truth or strengths of Indian thoughts and its social systems.  They depicted the Indian culture and practices as discriminatory barbarous, uncivilized and its social system highly stratified”, where multiplicity of communities and their cultures were exploiting each other for their own advantage.

The rulers forcefully implanted in the minds of people, the real and imaginary, evils of 5practices.  The European teachers, missionaries, bureaucrats and British easily put all the blame on Social-structure of India for masses poverty, misery,  deprivation and exploitation

·       Modern means of transport and communications shortened distances and made mobility faster and easier, Every thing together had destroyed the local character of governance. Small local castes, confined within a small area earlier, grew in size, embracing a much wider area than before.

·       Earlier, the Hindu Society was classified into four Varnas embracing numerous castes and sub-castes within its fold.  Census operations divided it into five and created new unbridgeable compartments within Indian social structure – Backward caste, forward caste (caste Hindus), untouchable or scheduled caste, scheduled tribes and minority.  Through legal process, they gave each one a new separate and distinct identity.                                                                                            The new classification of Indian society has changed the older system in a fundamental way, giving rigidity to social stratification and hierarchical ranking. It led to casteism in politics. Dr. GS Ghurya says, The activities of the British Government has done very little toward the solution of the problem of caste.  Most of these activities, as must be evident, were dictated by prudence of administration and not by desire to reduce the rigidity of caste.  On the whole, the British rulers of India, who have throughout professed to be the trustees of the welfare of the country, never seem to have given much thought to the problem of caste, in so far as it affects the nationhood of India… Their measures generally have been promulgated piece-meal and with due regard to the safety of British domination.” (Dr. Ghurye GS, Caste and Class in India, pp 283-84.)

Preparation of grounds for electoral-politics – Various communities feared that Hindu majority government would dominate them. Leaders of non-Brahmin community united numerous endogamous jatis into region wise alliances, increased in size and emerged as powerful pressure groups in different regions.

Justice Party in Bombay in 1917, and South Indian Liberation Federation in Madras in 1916, united the lower and intermediate castes.  In Maharashtra, Phule and Ambedkar challenged the influence of Brahmins and Marathas. In Tamil Nadu and other Southern States, lower and intermediate castes got united under the leadership of Periyar by fusing in them Dravida and Tamil identities and led anti Brahmins movement.  They regarded lower and middle castes as descendants of the original non- Aryans natives of India, who believed in egalitarian pattern of society.  Aryans conquered them and through caste system, Brahmins established their superiority over them.

In AP and Karnataka, intermediate peasant castes like Reddy, Kammas, Lingayats, Vokkaligas came forward against Brahmins.  In Kerala, caste identities became rallying points for class like party formation starting with Ezhawwas, at one time the most depressed of all communities.  In Gujarat, ground level consolidation of Dalits, Adivasis and minorities rose.

The leaders of Non-Brahmins like Mahatma Phule, Ambedkar or Gopal Ganesh vehemently criticized Hindu hierarchical structure, and regarded untouchability as an inevitable concomitant of caste system. Therefore, eradication of caste system became their major plank. They taught the lower castes to get united and work for abolition of caste system as it was responsible for treating them as lesser human beings. It engaged them to forced labor or unsavory jobs, imposing many restrictions on them, preventing them from joining the mainstream of the society; and the subjugating them with the help of the religion. They also attacked the hypocrisy of Brahminism and emphasized reforms and spread of education.

Being non-militant by nature and very small in number, comprising only 3% of the total population, the Brahmins in South yielded to the pressures of non-Brahmins without much resistance and moved out from there to other parts of the country, where non-Brahmin movement was either weak or non-existent.

There was another group led by non-Brahmin political leaders, who wanted a share in the power-structure, special attention and intervention of the British government in electoral politics and government jobs, and thus improve the position of Backwards. In the South and Bombay Presidency, the non-Brahmin leaders voiced forcefully against the domination of Brahmins in government jobs and other modern callings. British had full sympathy with them.   This demand ultimately gave birth to the policy of Reservation. Electoral policy, Census operations, and Reservation Policy. Together, these policies were responsible for the entry of casteism and communalism into the political life of the country, which was non-existent hitherto.

In 1918, Mysore Government denominated all communities, but Brahmins, as backward and gave the backwards special protection in the form of scholarship, admission in educational institutions, quota in jobs and other concessions and benefits.  Special Government officers were appointed to look after their welfare.  Madras and Bombay Presidencies followed their example.

Government of India Act, 1919, accorded special representation by granting a few nominated seats, in the Legislative Assembly, for depressed classes.  Legislative regulations and administrative orders declared denial of access to untouchables to schools, well, roads and public places as illegal.  So far, untouchable activities were combined with the non-Brahmin movement.

By 1928, untouchables separated themselves from the intermediate caste and established their independent identity at national level. Until 1932, the Government of India avoided itself from stigmatizing any group, by official acknowledgement, of their low social status and considered it unfair because Owing to the social disabilities, to which members of the depressed classes are exposed, it would be in the highest degree undesirable that any official authorization might appear to extend such qualification. The fluidity of social distinctions and the efforts of the classes lowest in the scale, aided by social reformers, to improve their status make it more desirable, that government should abstain from doing anything, which would tend to give rigidity to these distinctions.(Indian Statutory Commission, 1930, VI, p 341)

The joint Select Committee of the British Parliament, while reviewing the South Borough Report on measures to secure representation of minorities or of Backward classes for Indian Constitutional Reforms 1919, commented that they attached importance to the educational advancement of the depressed and Backward classes. (Mukherjee P, Indian Constitution and all Relevant Documents relating to Indian Constitutional Reforms of 1990, p 528).

In 1930, Starte Committee suggested to sub-divide the backward classes into untouchables, aboriginal hill tribes and other backward class.  Political expediency and imperial designs to keep balance of power got victory over rational thinking.

Through Communal Award 1932, British created a permanent split in Hindu Society. It perpetuated casteism and made impossible the assimilation of different castes under one fold.  Dr. Rajendra Prasad said, The principle of dividing population into communal groups, which had been adopted in the Minto Morley reforms had been considerably extended, even beyond what had been done by Montagu Chelmsford Reforms… The electorate in 1919 was broken up into ten parts, now it is fragmented into seventeen unequal bits… Hindu community was further weakened by giving separate representation to Scheduled castes. Division on the basis of religion, occupation and service were made.  Every possible cross division was introduced by the British.(Cited in Mehta and Patwardhan, The Communal Triangle, p72). The Communal Award strengthened the roots of casteism in politics.

By the end of the 19th century, the concern for the downtrodden and the movement against the hold of the Brahmins on land, wealth, and education was turned into a political movement. It aimed at obtaining legal rights and position of power through government intervention, Dr. Ambedkar made it abundantly clear that through political power, untouchables were to find their solution, not through acceptance by Hindus.

Ironically, as their political power increased, they insisted on their separate identity. They sought special legal protection and share in politics and administration on the basis of caste. By 1920’s, numerous caste organizations, especially in the South and West, organised themselves into larger collectiveness by keeping contacts and alliances with their counterparts at other places; formed associations and federations at local and regional levels and emerged as a powerful political force.

Conclusion – From historical facts, above, it is clear that the British fanned casteism and communalism in electoral-politics for political reasons. Earlier, though there were few stray incidents of violence, the nation was largely free from caste wars or class clashes.  However, the sectional interests aroused the agitation among different castes and communities all over the nation.  There started a cut-throat competition for scarce positions of power and prestige under British Raj.

 The seeds of casteism and communalism, which were sown by the British, blossomed to its full in the electoral politics of independent India.

September 11, 2019 Posted by | General | | Leave a comment

Politics without Principles

Unprincipled Politics – Sheer opportunism and valueless power politics have gradually taken over the place of principles and idealism after the independence.  The present-day political leaders have become very practical. They place themselves above the law of the nation. Law or no law, for them, political expediency is the most important thing in the world.

Criminalization of Politics – Many political leaders are closely associated with goons. They pamper anti-social elements, which openly practice terror politics.  Many high profile politicians are themselves history-sheeters/involved in criminal activities.  The number of history sheeters is continuously increasing in local politics, legislatures and parliament.

Observation of a Judge – Judge Dhingra observed in former Union Minister Kalp Nath Rai’s case in March 1977  … The nexus between terrorists, criminals and politicians is not a figment of imagination of this court, but a reality to be reckoned with. The terror in the minds of people is so much that no one dares to stand witness against them…. While the leading effect of terrorism is fear and alarm, it is employed to accomplish a variety of objectives like land grabbing, grabbing political power and creating an atmosphere of terror in the state machinery… Terrorists have developed pockets of influence among powerful persons and various state departments.  This leads to their escape from the clutches of law very often…. Weak criminal justice and police system in India has made the country an ideal playground for them. It has been amplified in Vohra Report, when he said that they run a parallel government in many parts of the country. 

Criminalisation combined with corruption – Criminalisation combined with corruption has made a common man’s life more miserable.  There is corruption at all levels and in all spheres.  In an ever-increasing atmosphere of indiscipline, politicization and criminalisation, upright and honest officers find the atmosphere suffocating. 

Sub-servient bureaucrats – Many bureaucrats prefer to become a servile tool in the hands of ruling politicians.  The result is erosion of rule of law, misuse of governmental machinery, misappropriation of public funds. Some of the direct consequences of such situation are – scams and scandals.  It might be recollected that newspapers reported scams totaling to Rs. 10,200 crores, involving seven major scams, which came to light between 1992 and 1996.

Luxurious life-style – Many politicians shed crocodile tears over the agonies of poor people. They preach sacrifice, austerity etc. to the public at large, but they themselves lead a luxurious life at the cost of taxpayers/public money.  There was a time, when leaders like Gandhiji, practiced what they preached. They possessed a sense of responsibility and mission and, therefore, they had an impact on the people’s psyche. 

Disgusted public – The naked pursuit of power has made the present day politicians insensitive to the needs and feelings of the public.  Events, after 1990’s, have not only exposed politician’s true intentions. Public now understands about political manipulations and false promises made pre or post elections. It has increased the distance between political leaders and the common-man.  People are utterly disgusted with the politicians and their doings. 

Unholy alliances between political parties before or after elections (Coalition Governments) – The fragmented verdict after the general elections of 1990, the trend of forming a coalition government, or a government with outside support at national level has started. It has led to instability, non-performing, weak government, without much sense of responsibility. For any unpopular/unsuccessful plan or policy, blame game starts. Each political party blames the other for taking up wrong policy decisions. It has posed a new challenge – the challenge of forming stable government, either at national or at state level.

In 1996 general elections, that there was an anti-congress mandate.  But in order to wield the power, the United Front Government took the support of Congress party despite the verdict of people against it. Congress had remained a powerful force as a king-maker till the United Front Government lasted.

More importance to Sectional interests than national interests – Today, India is in an age of unprecedented social turmoil.  There is a highly westernized urban elite, upwardly mobile middle class and an alienated underclass, which can easily be manipulated.  During last fifty years, many sections of society, which were earlier interdependent, or submerged socially and politically, have emerged in political arena. They have now established their separate political identities and have become powerful vehicles for insisting or pushing forward sectoral demands and brushing aside the national interests. 

Politicization of Caste – Capture of political, administrative and technical decision-making power and to secure more space in the power echelons have become a matter of crucial importance for all the newly emerged competing social and economic groups, everyone seeking a bigger share of the spoil in one way or the other. At present, caste is the single most important factor in politics.

In order to gain public support, leaders of different political parties depend more on passions than principles, be it castiest, religious or otherwise.    It has become one of the big challenges before the authority to reconcile the claims of growth with the claims of equity. The tendency has completely polarized the peoples’ opinion, divided them into numerous unbridgeable compartments. It led to the mushroom growth of self-proclaimed messiahs and emergence of numerous pressure groups pursuing sectoral interests and sharpening communal and castiest divide.  A few groups with numerical strength have become very vocal and assertive. Political authorities fear to annoy them and, therefore, concede to their demands openly or discreetly, while in power.  Of late, Dalits, backwards and Muslims are being wooed with vigor by all the political parties.  Naxalite groups find in Dalits the allies, as most of their action squads are formed of Harijans.  Widespread discontent among the people, due to the non-performance and half hearted measures taken by the successive governments to deal with their genuine problems, have turned them anti-establishment and increased violence. The organised intolerance of some groups, which are over conscious of their racial, regional, cultural and religious identities and feel to be threatened by others, has grown out of proportions, perpetuating agitation and violence. It has threatened the unity of nation. All these developments have made political situation so fluid, that no political party is in a position to gain an absolute majority since 1990.  Therefore, it is one of the important challenges for the government to hold the huge and diverse masses of India together.

Disillusioned Public  – Today a common man has become so inured that any amount of harassment, violence of human dignity and human rights, bloodshed, caste-wars, carnage, riots, corruption, scams or scandals hardly fazes him anymore.  One feels secure, until not affected personally. The growth of literacy and awareness, trend in consumerism, increasing consciousness of their rights to the determent of the duties, responsibilities attached with each right and the tall promises by politicians have already aroused the expectations of the people. There is a wide gap between the expectations and opportunities to fulfill them.  Therefore, there is frustration, venom against each other, agitation and violence, which threatens to shake the system and its structures.  The assertiveness of Dalits and intolerance of backward castes, especially after the Mandalisation of politics, quite often lead to caste-wars.  The development of the nation demands a sense of social responsibility in the masses, and need to sensitize the authorities about the real needs of the masses.

Like Four Blind Men and the Elephant, the authorities perceive and project disparate parts of nations psyche. They do not represent it as a whole. By playing on the superficial needs of the populace, the authorities are unable to grasp and analyze the real issues and challenges.   The result is persistent backwardness and endemic instability.  The cure to this disease can be obtained only after correctly diagnosing it. The power-seekers do their best to divert the mob-attention from the real issues to the abstract ones like Equity, Secularism, Social Justice etc., which instead of bringing prosperity to the people, have bred in them intolerance, inflexibility, narrowness, unadulterated materialism, the feeling of otherness/ estrangement in the society. At present, unrelenting greed of some for power, money and comforts has generated greater injustice, immorality and wretchedness. India has everything a nation needs for development – tremendous amount of skilled and unskilled manpower, all kinds of raw materials, a good legal system, a huge market and potential to export virtually everything, provided the cost of its inputs are kept at international levels.  Only the government has to address itself to the real basic issues, not the peripheral, or abstract ones, which makes people pit emotional venom against each other.  It has to get rid of its internal contradictions – between prosperity and poverty, between plenty of resource endowments and the scarcity of their management, between its culture of peace and tolerance and its conduct sliding towards violence, intolerance and discrimination.  In India, the greatest threat to development has come not so much from economic deficiency, but from disunity arising out of religious, castiest, racial, tribal or political dissension. The principles and practices, which could have reconciled the diverse interests, instincts and aspirations of the people, have been ignored, repressed or distorted for the sake of political expediency.  Poverty, illiteracy, ill health, corruption and criminality have kept the masses in bondage.  Sheer opportunism and valueless politics have taken over the place of principles and idealism.  Today the nation demands, above all, the unity, hard work, discipline, dedication and determination of all its people for its sustainable development.

In short what the country needs is

  • Infra-structure -water,sanitation, electricity, public transport.
  • Quality health facilities.
  • Sound system of education an traing
  • Urban employment guarantee
  • Transparency in government dealings.
  • No discrimination
  • Equal special benefits for all deprived individuals irrespective of caste or creed.
  • Revitalizing measures for agriculture and rural economy
  • Boost for womens’ economic participation
  • More representation of women and youth in political system.
  • Speedier justice
  • Special cell against discrimination on social religious grounds
  • Complete control on religious extremism and terrorism.
  • Global responsibility.

September 3, 2019 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Nation State

Before going into details of good governance, it is necessary to know what does  ‘a Nation State’ and ‘Government’ and ‘Government Civil Services’ mean? 

Concept of ‘Nation State?’ –The idea of a ‘nation state’ is not very old. For medieval scholars, present concept of nation was different. For them, government ruled by the consent of the people rather than by Holy mandate was perhaps unthinkable.  

The concept  of ‘Nation state’ in its present sense is more or less a nineteenth century concept. At present, the notion of a ‘nation state’ is different from the earlier idea of ‘city state’, ‘multi-national state’, ‘empire’, ‘confederation’ or other state forms. Today idea of ‘nation state’ is associated with the rise of modern sovereign state, where its own government administers within its specific territorial area. It works for the unity and social, economic, political and cultural development of all its people living in that area. The ultimate aim of government is to help common men live a peaceful, safe and secure life. Today, however, this simple and powerful truth is too often forgotten.

Emergence of the concept of Welfare and Developmental administration ties – Earlier, till nineteenth Century, the main tasks of the government used to be maintenance of law and order and revenue collection. French Revolution, Bolshevik Revolution, or Industrial Revolution had changed the scenario. It had a great impact on contemporary developments,especially in widening the scope of State activities. Poverty and misery, which were earlier accepted as the lot of masses, are no longer regarded as inevitable. In the post Second World war period, almost all the newly emerged nations in Asia, Africa, Latin America and parts of Europe, added Welfare and Developmental activities in their agenda.

September 3, 2019 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment

   

%d bloggers like this: