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Social and political Values and Systems in India.

Ambedkar, “The Father/Maker of the Constitution of India?

 “ Without equality, liberty would produce the supremacy of the few over the many. Equality without liberty would kill individual initiative. Without fraternity, liberty would produce the supremacy of the few over the many.“ Ambedkar

Introduction –Baba Sahib Ambedkar was a genius.  He was basically a humanist. He was academically a highly qualified and very well educated person. At present, he is being idolized Ambedkar as “The Father/Maker of Indian Constitution” and  Rescuer of DalitsDr Ambedkar
himself considered idolization as an act leading to destruction. There is a section of intelligentsia and surviving old timers, which feels that
‘Inappropriate to single out Dr Ambedkar as father of the Constitution’.

It is unfortunate that both his followers or critics, in their vested interest have failed to understand the role of Baba Sahib Ambedkar and other national leaders in making the Constitution of India. Both could neither understand or analyse his thoughts about social justice, women’s empowerment, federalism and economy in right perspective without bias nor understood correctly. They are not passing on  his visions/teachings/messages to coming generation correctly.

Both his followers as well as critics tell only half-truths to the people and coming generations.   They ignore many historical facts/developments, happened during 20th century.  Political leaders of 21st century ignore the changes that has  happened socially, economically and politically in the position of Dalit community in recent past. They interpret Ambedkar’s teachings, the way that  suits/benefits them to show that only they are their true well-wishers. In the name of Ambedkar, they try to create Dalit vote-bank in their favour and grab political power. 

While laying down the foundation of some democratic institutions and policies, the Imperial rulers set an example,  how policies of great scope can be used for serving their own vested interests. And how these measures could serve a double purpose – get credit of amelioration and protection of poor masses as well as keep a balance of power through distributing it on caste/communal basis. The present day politicians have become experts now to use political systems for pacifying the poor masses, create vote-banks, win elections and get hold on political power. (Quoted from “Policy of Divide And Rule India – Past and Present’, from website: latasinha.wordpress.com)

Part I

About Dr Ambedkar

It is said that During his life-time, Dr Ambedkar, had recognition as an intellectual having his own philosophy and interpretations, but he lacked leadership qualities and mass appeal. Ambedkar’s followers say  that during his life time Ambedkar had suffered a lot as a political leader because of his belonging to Mahar community of Maharashtra. It put obstacles in furthering his social status or educational and political career. They forget that life is not a bed of roses for a human being. Everyone has to face ups and downs and have to struggle to achieve his goals. Dr Ambedkar rose up to the top everywhere only because of his hard work, determination, intelligence and vision. Ambedkar’s childhood – Being a son of an army personnel, his childhood was safe and secure.  The Father and grandfather of Dr Ambedkar, were the employees of the British Army working as SM Sahib, when he was a child. The position of SM sahib is very influential within a Unit of Indian Army. It had  ensured a good education and respectable social life for him, while living in army campus.

  • Ambedkar’s student life – Dr Ambedkar was fortunate to get best possible education at the time when literacy rate in Bombay was 11.6% (M) and 0.9% (F). During his student life,  he received the best possible education available either within India or abroad. After passing Matriculation examination from Bombay, Ambedkar continued his further studies in prestigious Elphinstone High School and Elphinstone College with the help of a monthly scholarship given by Maharaja Gaekwad of Baroda, Bhimrao (‘Rao’ is added to names in Maharashtra as a sign of respect) passed his B.A. in 1912. In 1912, he graduated in Political Science and Economics from Bombay University and got a job in Baroda. In 1913, Maharaja of Baroda awarded scholarship to Bhimrao Ambedkar for further studies at the world-famous elite University of Columbia, New York. It was with a condition that he would serve Baroda state for ten years on finishing his studies. The freedom and equality he experienced in America made a very strong impression on Bhimrao. There he attained a degree in Master of Arts and a Doctorate in Philosophy from Columbia University in 1916 for his thesis “National Dividend for India: A Historical and Analytical Study.” The Maharaja of Baroda appointed Dr Ambedkar as his political secretary.

In 1917 Bhimrao Ambedkar returned to Bombay. In 1918, he became a lecturer at Sydenham College in Bombay. There, he got the reputation as a brilliant teacher and scholar. In 1920, after accumulating sufficient funds, Ambedkar went back to London to complete his studies in Economics at LSE. He also enrolled to study as a Barrister at Gray’s Inn and became a barrister-at- law. In 1923, Bhimrao returned to India with a Doctorate in Economics from the LSE – he was perhaps the first Indian to have a Doctorate from this world-famous institution.

  • Ambedkar’s political career – He got recognition as a powerful leader untouchable community during Imperial rule in India. After Independence, he was recognized as a national leader, influential orator and an expert in legal matters. He was selected as the Chairman of Drafting Committee of Constituent Assembly of Independent India.  He was nominated as the first Law Minister of Independent India.
  • Before Independence
    • With the help of Shahu Maharaj of Kolhapur, he started a fortnightly newspaper, the “Mooknayak” (Dumb Hero) on January 31, 1920. That was the start of his political career.
    • After coming back to India, in July 1924, Dr Ambedkar was well equipped to be a leader of the Dalit community. He founded the Bahishkrit Hitkaraini Sabha (Outcastes Welfare Association). The aim of the Sabha was to uplift the downtrodden socially and politically and bring them back to the mainstream of the Indian society.
    • In 1930, when a Round Table Conference was held by the British Government in London to decide the future of India, Babasaheb represented the ‘untouchables’. He was very clear about the objective of his political career that Attempt to uplift my community rather than to win Swaraj for the nation is my goal.” As between the country and myself, the country will have precedence, as between the country and the depressed classes, the depressed classes will have precedence.”
    • Earlier he said that  Depressed Classes of India would also join in the demand for replacing the British Government by a Government of the people and by the people. “Our wrongs have remained as open sores and have not been righted although 150 years of British rule have rolled away. Of what good is such a Government to anybody?” Gandhiji appreciated that. But later on, he made the controversial decision to co-operate with the all-British Simon Commission. He attended Simon Commission’s debates as a representative of depressed classes during. When Congress party decided to boycott the Commission and drafted its own version of a constitution for free India, he attended all the three Round Table Conferences in London and forcefully argued for the welfare of the “untouchables”. He said very clearly, I will leave no doubt in the minds of the people of this country that I have another loyalty, … .. the loyalty is to the community of the untouchables; in which I am born, to which I belong…. Whenever there is any conflict of interests between the country and the untouchables, so far as I am concerned, the untouchable interests will take precedence over the interests of the country. I am not going to support a tyranny of the majority, simply because it happens to speak in the name of the country.” He succeeded in getting a separate electorate for the depressed classes under Ramsay McDonald ‘Communal Award’. The famous Poona Pact replaced the separate electorate demand with special concessions like reserved seats in the regional legislative assemblies and Central Council of States.
    • Dr. B.R. Ambedkar set up the “Independent Labor Party” in August 1936 to contest the elections in the Bombay province. He and many candidates of his party were elected to the Bombay Legislative Assembly.
    • In 1937, a Bill was introduced to abolish the “khoti” system of land tenure in the Konkan region, the serfdom of agricultural tenants and the Mahar “watan” system of working for the Government as slaves. A clause of an agrarian bill referred to the depressed classes as “Harijans,” or people of God. Bhimrao was strongly opposed to this title for the untouchables. But the Indian National Congress succeeded in introducing the term Harijan. During the Second World War, Babasaheb was appointed Labour Minister by the Viceroy.
    • The All-India Scheduled Castes Federation was formed in 1942 to gather all ‘untouchables’ into a united political party.
  • Ambedkar role in politics after Independence
    • In 1947, Dr Ambedkar was elected as a Member of the Constituent Assembly from Bengal. The Constituent Assembly made him chairman of the committee appointed to draft the constitution for the world’s largest democracy. He became the First Law Minister of Independent India in Nehru’s cabinet.
    • In October 1948, Dr. Ambedkar submitted the Hindu Code Bill to the Constituent Assembly in an attempt to codify the Hindu law. The Bill caused great divisions even in the Congress party. Consideration for the bill was postponed to September 1951. When the Bill was taken up it was truncated. A dejected Ambedkar relinquished his position as Law Minister.
  • Ambedkar as a visionary thinker  – Ambedkar was a man of legal acumen, untiring industry, consummate skill and firmness, tempered with modernization. He dreamt of inclusive society, where everybody could live peacefully and harmoniously. Following are some of his ideas on different issues –
  • He could visualize difficulties, after independence, India as a nation could face in future by saying, “On 26th January 1950, we are going to enter into a life of contradictions. In politics we will have equality, and in social and economic life we will have inequality. …. If our social and economic structure continues to deny the principle of one man one value how long shall we continue to live this life of contradictions? How long shall we continue to deny equality in our social and economic life?” He warned the nation at that time ” We must remove this contradiction at the earliest possible moment or else those who suffer from inequality will blow up the structure of political democracy, which this assembly has so laboriously built up.
  • Believed in Cultural unity of India – Ambedkar believed in India’s cultural unity and the need for the political unification of India based on that spiritual-cultural basis. He wanted to annihilate caste system not by revenge, hatred and violence, but by rethinking, reason and reformation. He, therefore, taught untouchables To organize, educate and agitate with an aim to finishing caste prejudices, the arrogance, and the Holier than thou’ attitude of Brahmins. He wanted his people to improve their condition by education, enlightenment and enterprise not by animosity, anger and abuse. It is quite understandable that he did not hate Brahmins as he was happily married to a Brahmin lady. He had a great respect for Justice Ranade.
  • Rejected the linguistic basis of the nation-state – While arguing for linguistic states, Dr Ambedkar rejected the linguistic basis of the nation-state. He stated, “The formula one language, one State means that all people speaking one language should be brought under one Government irrespective of area, population and dissimilarity of conditions among the people speaking the language. This is the idea that underlies the agitation for a united Maharashtra with Bombay. This is an absurd formula and has no precedent for it. It must be abandoned. A people speaking one language may be cut up into many States as is done in other parts of the world.”
  • Ambedkar was a Democrat –     In an ideal society, there should be many interests consciously communicated and shared.”.. “Democracy is not merely a form of Government. It is primarily a mode of associated living, of conjoint communicated experience. It is essentially an attitude of respect and reverence towards fellow men. E.V. Ramaswamy, Periyar said that, “in a nation with different languages, religions, and castes with low literacy democracy cannot in any way bring any progress.” But Dr. Ambedkar believed that “Social democracy means a way of life, which recognizes liberty, equality and fraternity as the principle of life.” Dr Ambedkar strongly supported universal suffrage and thought ‘the exercise of vote was itself an education’.
  • Advised to make political democracy, a social democracy –      Ambedkar believed Where a majority of population is denied its share in actual power, there exists no democracy.Ambedkar had said that “We must make our political democracy a social democracy as well. Political democracy cannot last unless there lies at the base of it social democracy. What does social democracy mean? It means a way of life which recognizes liberty, equality and fraternity as the principles of life.”
  • Turned the wheel of law towards social justice –  He turned the wheel of law towards social justice for all. Dr. Ambedkar stated that “Social democracy means a way of life, which recognizes liberty, equality and fraternity as the principle of life.” Ambedkar firmly believed that “ Without equality, liberty would produce the supremacy of the few over the many. Equality without liberty would kill individual initiative. Without fraternity, liberty would produce the supremacy of the few over the many”.
  • Ambedkar did not agree with Periyar’s Aryan race theory and racial interpretation of Indian society. He believed that All Indians are one people.  “Fraternity means a sense of common brotherhood of all Indians-if Indians being one people. It is the principle which gives unity and solidarity to social life.”

“If anthropometry is a science which can be depended upon to determine the race of a people…(then its) measurements establish that the Brahmins and the Untouchables belong to the same race. From this it follows that if the Brahmins are Aryans the Untouchables are also Aryans. If the Brahmins are Dravidians, the Untouchables are also Dravidians….“

  • Faith in Indic values rather than European roots – While calling for the destruction of Smrithi and Sruthi based religion, Dr Ambedkar also specifically stated that – “For such religious principles as will be in consonance with Liberty, Equality and Fraternity, it may not be necessary for you to borrow from foreign sources, and that you could draw for such principles on the Upanishads.” Hindus should adapt their religion to modern situation transforming it into a religion of liberty, equality and fraternity based on the principles present in Upanishads. He always considered these important values as having Indic rather than European roots.
  • Frustrated with discriminatory nature of Hinduism –  Later on, Ambedkar got fed-up with rigid and discriminatory practices of Hinduism. He regarded caste system as great obstacles to Hindu Unity”. In 1935 at Yeola, for the first time Babasaheb advised his people to convert from Hinduism, because Hindu society treated them as ‘untouchables’.  He used to say, My self-respect cannot assimilate Hinduism…The religion that does not recognize you as human beings…is not worthy to be called a religion.He said, “Hinduism has given us only insults, misery, and humiliation.”…“We have not been able to secure the barest of human rights… I am born a Hindu. I couldn’t help it, but I solemnly assure you that I will not die a Hindu.” About a month before his death (December 6, 1956), on 0ctober 14, 1956 he himself embraced Buddhism along with many of his followers.
  • Ambedkar’s mindset while attending Simon Commission –  – Ambedkar thought Attempt to uplift my community rather than to win Swaraj for the nation is my goal.” … “I will leave no doubt in the minds of the people of this country that I have another loyalty, to which I am bound and which I can never for-sake. The loyalty is to the community of the untouchables; in which I am born, to which I belong and which I hope, I shall never desert. And I say this…. as strongly as I possibly can that whenever there is any conflict of interests between the country and the untouchables, so far as I am concerned, the untouchable interests will take precedence over the interests of the country. I am not going to support a tyranny of the majority, simply because it happens to speak in the name of the country…. As between the country and myself, the country will have precedence, as between the country and the depressed classes, the depressed classes will have precedence.

Dr Ambedkar, while representing untouchables in Simon Commission proceedings, demanded separate electorate, reserved seats for untouchables in legislative bodies, special educational concessions, and recruitment to Government posts on preferential basis, laws against discrimination and a special department to look after the welfare of untouchables. These demands were readily accepted through Communal Award of 1932.

Gandhiji along with other National leaders regarded it as the Unkindest cut of all, which would create a permanent split in Hindu Society, perpetuate casteism and make impossible the assimilation of untouchables in mainstream. Dr. Rajendra Prasad said, The principle of dividing population into communal groups, which had been adopted in the Minto Morely Reforms, had been considerably extended, even beyond what had been done by Montagu Chelmsford Reforms…. “The electorate in 1919 was broken up into ten parts, now it is fragmented into seventeen unequal bits… Giving separate representations to Schedule Castes further weakened Hindu community. Division on the basis of religion, occupation and service were made. The British introduced every possible cross division.iii Lal Bahadur Shastri denounced the whole happenings As a shameless episode of the National History of the Country.

Ambedkar on Reservation Policy – During Constituent Assembly Debates, Ambedkar advocated the policy of Reservation. According to Ambedkar, Reservation is not aimed at economic uplift or alleviation of poverty. But it is a provision made for the entry of certain castes, which have so far been outside the administration. Hence the need for their adequate representation in State Services. Adequacy should be judged not by their presence in the lower rung of the services, but their entry into the higher echelons, the corridor of power.

Later in life, as a socialist and humanist, who had the long-range interests of untouchables at heart, had developed doubts about advisability and efficacy of Reservation Policy. Pr. Balraj Madhok mentioned that later in life, Ambedkar realized that SC and ST would not be able to stand on their own feet, so long as they depended on the crutches of Reservation. Reservation, Dr. Ambedkar said, Encouraged backwardness, inefficiency and lack of competitive merit among them barring a few stray cases. Therefore, when he launched the Republican Party of India, he incorporated this view in the Manifesto, according to which the party was committed itself to abolish all kinds of Reservations based on caste and birth.

 Chowdhary Charan Singh also said, Ambedkar himself declared in a speech sometime before his death that the provision of Reservation in service should not extend beyond 1960/61.

During his last days, Ambedkar himself realized that I have not been able to fulfil my mission. I wanted to do more for the SC people and to see them as governing class in my life. I could have succeeded, but my own people have deceived me. Whatever I have been able to do, is being enjoyed by the educated people and they are the worst fools. I now want to divert my attention to the uneducated masses, but life seems short. The second worry to my mind is that I wanted that somebody from the SC should come forward and take the responsibilities from me. There, however, seems none to shoulder such a heavy responsibility. All are selfish and quarrel themselves on petty matters.

Wrath of a section of intelligentsia – Ambedkar has earned the wrath of a section of intelligentsia and political leaders during pre-Independence period because: –

  • He, himself, was a beneficiary of social reform movement in Maharashtra led by nationalist leaders and reformers mostly belonging to caste Hindus. But in his speeches, he regarded caste Hindus as his enemy.
  • The intelligentsia regarded his move for separate electorates for untouchable as an act to split Hindu society permanently. It is alleged that he could not rise beyond his caste identity.
  • He was criticized for his association with Simon Commission proceedings, First Round Table Conference and Viceroy’s Executive Committee as member, with an intention to cooperate with British rulers, at the time, when national leaders were fighting British rulers for Independence;
  • His anguish against Hinduism and caste system and his act of burning Hindu-script, which he regarded as great obstacles to the Indian unity, annoyed many.
  • Many people did not like his confrontation with Gandhi. Ambedkar, like Jinnah was against Hindu majority rule, Congress Party and Gandhi. Both of them reacted against the above three in similar manner most of the times and preferred continuance of British rule.

Part II

Dr Ambedkar, ‘Father/maker’ of the Constitution of India? – There is no doubt that Dr Ambedkar’s was as an undisputed leader of untouchables and the Doyen of Dalit politics. His emergence on the political scene provided with the required leadership and needed stimulus to untouchable movement during late twenties and early thirties. But since then times have changed. In contemporary politics,  there has been a massive shift politically in favour of Dalits and backward communities. Now Dalits and OBCs have emerged as a powerful vote-bank and king-makers. Different political parties, pressure groups and political leaders are desperately trying  to win the favour of different sections of society, capture their vote-banks and thus create their own separate empires in national politics. All political parties woo Dalits community (comprising of about 19% of Indian population) desperately. They praise Ambedkar as the ‘Father/maker of Indian Constitution’ especially to get Dalit votes. The trend of putting Ambedkar’s name at the top as the maker of the constitution was at the peak during 1980s and1990s.

After the disappearance  of Indira Gandhi and Rajiv Gandhi from political scenario in 80’s, no single political party could get clear majority in general elections to form a stable government. The trend of forming coalition government was started. There was an atmosphere of political instability. Different political parties were trying hard to get a clear majority. They have learnt it well from British rulers, how to play their cards to enlarge their vote-banks, by using three powerful democratic weapons i.e. Electoral politics, Census operations, education system Reservation Policy etc. From that time onwards, almost all political parties concentrated on pursuing sectional interests to get a clear majority by hook or crook. If unable to succeed in getting clear mandate, then they formed coalition governments. There also, to play the role of king-maker they were required to get capture enough votes.

Imperial rulers had set an example of how policies of great scope can be used for serving one’s own vested interests. Since then, political leaders, political parties and pressure groups follow the footsteps of British rulers. They have learnt well from British rulers, how to play their cards for their own advantage and enlarge their vote-banks. They generally use the three powerful democratic weapons i.e. Electoral politics, Census operations, and Reservation Policy to ‘divide’ the Indian masses  on caste and communal basis and grab political power. Day in and day out, they play with public emotions/sentiments/aspirations.  They tell people half-truths and make false promises during elections. They focus their attention and make efforts to serve sectional interests and enlarge its vote-bank, rather than thinking of the development of nation or betterment of the  society as a whole.

Almost all the political leaders, political parties and pressure groups try to be one up. To attract the attention and favour of  Dalit voters, they use Ambedkar’s name. There is a cut-throat competition between different political parties, who can glorify Ambedkar’s name more and convince Dalit voters that they, only they are the true followers of Dr Ambedkar and like him true well-wisher of Dalit community.

Inappropriate to single out Dr Ambedkar as father of the Constitution – There are many intellectuals, jurists, experts on Constitutional law and surviving knowledgeable old timers with wisdom, who believe that the credit of making the Constitution of India should not go to Ambedkar only. Pr. K.V. Rao, an expert of Constitutional Law, said, No doubt, Ambedkar, a man of legal acumen, untiring industry, consummate skill and firmness, tempered with modernization, made substantial contribution to the framing of the Constitution…My reading of the Constitution makes me feel that it is inappropriate to call Dr Ambedkar, the father of the Constitution. If any people are entitled to be called so, they are Nehru, Patel and Prasad , but I would like to call them the “Presiding Deities”, the sources of all the ideas of the Constitution, the real makers of the Constitution. I would like to attribute father-hood to them as well as to the members of the Drafting Committee in common, but I would not like to single out Dr Ambedkar for this honour.

Famous Historian Bipin Chandra and intelligentsia of those days observed that in the making of Indian Constitution, Pt. Nehru, Dr Rajendra Prasad and Sardar Patel played a very important role. Pt. Nehru spelt out the philosophy and basic features of the consti­tution as “the first task of this Assembly is to free India through a constitution, to feed the starving people, and to clothe the naked masses, and to give every Indian the fullest opportunity to develop himself according to his capacity”. Sardar Patel played the decisive role in bringing in the representatives of the erstwhile princely states into the Constituent Assembly, and how to run smoothly the administration of the newly created nation – India. Rajendra Prasad was appreciated for his simplicity, impartiality and dignity as President of the Assembly as well as first President of Independent India. Maulana Azad brought his formidable scholarship and philo­sophical mind to bear on many issues of grave importance”. Therefore, not only Ambedkar, but all these leaders jointly, should be called “The Father of Indian Constitution”.

Opinion of Critics  – There is a section of people which considers that Ambedkar was planted into Indian politics purposely by British rulers. During British rule, rulers laid down the foundation of some democratic institutions and policies like Electoral policy, Census operations, and Reservation Policy. They took full advantage of these weapons   to ‘divide and rule India’ for economic exploitation as long as possible. The suggestion of the Census Commission for 1911 Census, to exclude untouchables, comprising about 24% of Hindu population and 16% of the total population in 1908, from Hinduism, had made position of untouchables prominent in Indian political scene.

Part III

Making of the Constitution of India

Constituent Assembly – A Constituent Assembly was founded‎: ‎6 December 1946 under the Cabinet Mission Plan on 16 May 1946 to write the Constitution of India, which drafted the Constitution of India between the years 1946 to 1950. Its first session was convened on 9 December, 1946. The Constitution of India, became operative from 26 January, 1950.

Members of the Constituent Assembly – The Constitution of India was framed by a Constituent Assembly set up under the Cabinet Mission Plan of 1946. The Assembly consisted of 389 members representing provinces (292), states (93), the Chief Commissioner Provinces (3) and Baluchistan (1). They were elected by the provincial assemblies by a single, transferable-vote system of proportional representation.  Initially, its total membership was kept 389. After partition, the Constituent Assembly of India had 299 representatives, from provinces and 70 from princely states. Prominent National leaders like Nehru, Patel, Rajendra Prasad and Maulana took extra care to make it a wide representative body. The Assembly had included  as many as possible, well known, eminent political leaders, lawyers, academicians and other eminent/brilliant persons from nearly all walks of life including some of those, who opposed the Congress like Dr Syama Prasad Mookerjee. B.R. Ambedkar, Sanjay Phakey, Nehru, Raj Gopalachari, Rajendra Prasad, Sardar Patel, Ganesh Mavalanker, Kanaiya Lal Maneklal Munshi, , Sandipkumar Patel, Abul Kalam Azad, Shyama Prasad Mukherji, Nalini Ranjan Ghosh, and Balwantrai Mehta were key figures in the assembly, It had over 30 representatives of the Scheduled Classes. Frank Anthony represented Anglo-Indian community.Parsis were represented by H. P. Modi. Bahadur Gurung represented the Gorkha community. Judges, such as Alladi Krishnaswamy Iyer, B. N. Rau, etc. were members of the assembly. Female members included Sarojini Naido, Hansa Mehta, Durgabai Deshmukh, Amrit Kaur and Vijay Laxmi Pandit.

Sachchidananda Sinha‎, ‎INC, was the Temporary Chairman‎ and Vice President‎ was ‎Harendra Coomar Mookerjeeof the Constituent Assembly of Independent India. On 11 December, Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected as the first permanent Chairman.

Number of Committees formed in the Constituent Assembly – The Constituent Assembly set up 13 committees on different issues for framing the constitution. One prepared material and proposals for the constitution under the chairmanship of Pt Nehru.  Another was formed to work on integration of about 650 princely state under the chairmanship of Sardar Patel etc. Harendra Coomar Mookerjee, a Christian assembly vice-president, chaired the minorities committee and represented non-Anglo-Indian Christians.

In his letter of 30th June 1947, Dr Rajendra Prasad, President of the Constituent Assembly, had requested BG Kher, the then Prime Minister of Bombay, to elect Dr Ambedkar immediately. Incidentally, the Congress had earlier opposed tooth and nail, Ambedkar’s entry into the Constituent Assembly. Later on, the Congress party had to accept.

Drafting Committee of the Constituent Assembly – The Drafting Committee of Constituent Assembly was headed by Dr Ambedkar. All Seven members, Sir BN Rau,  KM Munshi, N Gopalaswamy Ayyangar, Alladi Krishnaswamy Ayyar, Syed Mohammad Saadullah, N Madhava Rau. were legal experts or administrative luminaries.

Drafting of Constitution required patience, negotiating skills and a flexibility to accommodate diverse opinions. Legislation and solidification of freedom would not be easy without the services of Dr Ambedkar.  Ambedkar was chosen as the head of Drafting Committee, because he had already been in various sub-committees like the Advisory Committee, Fundamental Rights Sub-Committee and Minorities Sub-Committee of the Constitutional Assembly. He submitted a memorandum with very valid suggestions to the Fundamental Rights Sub-Committee. This memorandum was later published for wider circulation under the title ‘States and minorities, their rights and how to secure them in the Constitution of free India’. 

In his last speech In the Constituent Assembly, Ambedkar appealed  to the Nation,“On the 26th of January 1950, we are going to enter into a life of contradictions. In politics we will have equality and in social and economic life we will have inequality. In politics we will be recognizing the principle of one man one vote and one vote one value. In our social and economic life, we shall, by reason of our social and economic structure, continue to deny the principle of one man one value. How long shall we continue to live this life of contradictions? How long shall we continue to deny equality in our social and economic life? If we continue to deny it for long, we will do so only by putting our political democracy in peril. We must remove this contradiction at the earliest possible moment or else those who suffer from inequality will blow up the structure of political democracy which is Assembly has to laboriously built up.”

The basic structure of the Constitution – The constitution replaced the Government of India Act, 1935, as the country’s fundamental governing document, and the Dominion of India became the Republic of India. Its basic structure was based on the Government of India Act of 1935. Many improvements into it were made by following the good features of other consti­tutions like from US constitution, Irish constitution, the time tested conventions of the British Parliament etc.

Biggest brain behind drafting the Indian ConstitutionThere is no doubt that Drafting Committee of the  Indian Constitution Constituent Assembly was headed by Dr Ambedkar. But it is also well-known then, that the real place of work of making the Indian Constitution was the Congress Working Committee, which took all the important decisions. Its prominent members were leaders like Nehru, Patel, Rajendra Prasad (Chairperson of Constituent Assembly) or Constitutional jurists like Alladi Krishna Swami Ayyar, K.M. Munshi, G B Pant and others. It was frankly admitted by Dr Ambedkar himself  along with Mahavir Tyagi, one of the members of Drafting Committee that their hands were tied and they were only carrying out the wishes of the majority.

Some people say that the biggest brain behind drafting the Constitution was that of Mr BN Rau. He was not a member of the Constitutional Assembly but was appointed as the adviser to the Constituent Assembly. He did the most job and worked out the democratic framework of the Constitution. He was the most important expert who did the primary thinking and writing. But he has been religiously ignored by frontline politicians. The political bosses of today have not given the due space to the contributions of both Menon or Rau in the history of making of  independent India. Most of them do not even know who he was?

Rau is the principal framer of the Indian Constitution; others only did the cosmetic jobs here and there. He singlehandedly prepared the initial draft by February 1948, to be debated, revised and finally adopted by the team on November 26, 1949. The Drafting Committee, under the chairmanship of Ambedkar, declared that the ‘Draft Constitution’ was being scrutinised thoroughly by adviser BN Rau for making it one of the world’s best Constitutions. President of Constituent Assembly Rajendra Prasad, just before signing the Constitution on November 26, 1949, thanked Rau profusely for having “worked honorarily” assisting the assembly not only with his knowledge and erudition but enabling the other members to perform their duties with thorough prudence.

Conclusion – It is unfortunate that Followers of Dr Ambedkar appear not to have done justice to him. They have misunderstood Ambedkar. They have used his name ruthlessly for their selfish motive and political ends. They idolized Ambedkar as Rescuer of Dalits. The trend in 90s of idolization of Ambedkar or attempts of Ambedkarisation of the nation exposed the intentions of his followers, especially when he himself considered idolization as an act leading to destruction. Today agitated Dalit leaders are, but their agitation is far away from being a positive or constructive one. It has turned into a negative militancy against caste Hindu.

Ambedkar rose as the political icon. His life is a classic and most inspiring example of what a man can achieve through hard work, knowledge, vision and clear-cut priorities. He himself struggled and worked hard to achieve his objectives and success. He gave a required boost to Dalit movement to move forward at  right time. He played a significant role in national politics and as the Chairman of drafting Committee of Indian Constitution.

Ambedkarites seems to have been proved shallow in understanding his aim for social transformation with SC’s being the base. They do not seem to have understood Ambedkar in right perspective. He wanted to annihilate caste system not by revenge, hatred and violence, but by rethinking, reason and reformation. He, therefore, taught untouchables To organize, educate and agitate with an aim to finishing caste prejudices, the arrogance, and the Holier than thou’ attitude of Brahmins. He wanted his people to improve their condition by education, enlightenment and enterprise not by animosity, anger and abuse. It is quite understandable that he did not hate Brahmins as he was happily married to a Brahmin lady. He had a great respect for Justice Ranade.

Present day political leaders try to ignore the realities of the India of twenty-first century – a massive shift has already taken place in favour of Dalits socially, politically and economically all-over India.

April 28, 2019 Posted by | Reservation/Affirmative action program | Leave a comment

   

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